Selamat siang para sahabat, senang bisa berbagi pengetahuan lagi disini, langsung aja ke TKP. selama ini mungkin kita tidak pernah berfikir bagaimana dan apa yang terjadi di belakang kita disaat kita menempuh dan mengejar sebuah ilmu, banyak keluhan yang kita alami, dan mulai hari ini saya pribadi baru sadar bahwa semangat saya untuk mendapatkan Ilmu dari sebuah sekolahan itu belum ada apa-apanya dibandingkan dengan teman-teman kita di bawah ini.
Mereka harus menyeberangi sungai yang kurang lebih 25m lebarnya hanya dengan menggunakan sebutir tali, dengan beban di tas yang begitu berat, dan itu mau-tidak mau harus mereka lakuin setiap hari demi mendapatkan sebuah pelajaran yang mungkin akan berguna kelak, kampung ini terletak di negeri kita (Maaf saya tidak dapat menyebutkan tempatnya).
Sekarang saya hanya bisa berfikir, di sana sini banyak para pejabat yang tertawa terbahak karena kekayaan yang dimilikinya, bangga akan Jembatan Suramadu, tapi ternyata masih ada di belakang kita orang-orang yang seharusnya diperhatikan, untungnya mereka penuh semangat yang patut di contoh....!!!
Hanya sekedar Motifasi, kurang lebihnya mohon ijin maaf, kalau gak sesuai sama judul tersebut ya....!!!!! Terus Semangat Meskipun tidak dipedulikan sama pejabat yang sukanya Molor, seperti yang dibawah ini :
Kurang asem nie orang......!! Pikir tuh mereka anak - anak yang ada di atas.!!! enak tenaaaaaaan wakil kita !!!!
Clonal Forestry or often translates into Clonal forestry is a forest plantation development system by using clones . As is known clone is a genetic material that is selected and bred vegetatively ( asexsual ) . The most common method of vegetative clonal development implemented in Forestry is Rooted cutting technique ( cutting ) the better mini cutting or cutting macros . Mini cutting is a vegetative plant material consisting of plant shoots and a few leaves at the bottom of the plant shoots were obtained clonal hedges ( clonal orchard pruning ) , while generally without using macros cutting shoots but only use a few leaves were cut in half .
In planning the development of forestry plants with clonal forestry systems , there are several requirements that the key to success , namely :
1 . clonal material
Clonal material used must meet the necessary requirements in accordance with the designation of the plant timber . For example, for pulp and paper industry , the terms of wood properties ( properties of wood ) it must meet the density , fiber length , fiber number , color , lignin content , cellulose content , and other requirements coinciding with the pulp -making process . Clones developed must also be easily propagated vegetatively , because it's useless to get a good clone but hard to be bred in bulk . Clones are common terms are :
- Fast growth and high
- Easily bred in bulk
- The response to fertilization
- Optimal resistance to pests and diseases in important
- Having a wood properties in accordance with industry needs
2 . Clon x Site interaction ( clone x Tread )
Clones are usually very strong interaction with the environment where they grow , because after interkasinya clones were selected based environment , or often referred to as P = G + E , where the interaction of genotype ( clone ) with the Environment ( Environment ) will produce Phenotype ( Performance , Production , Phenotype ) . Very rare to find clones that were able to interact well with all the environmental conditions that affect plant growth . For example clones in sub-tropical regions is very difficult to grow well in the tropics , or superior clones in areas with elevation > 1500 m above sea level will be difficult to adapt to areas with elevation of 100-200 m above sea level , for example . Or clones were selected in regions with high nutrient content , may not be optimal in regions with low nutrient content . Clonal forestry planning should involve site planning (site ) and existing cropping environment and an integral part of operational planning with other series such as human resources , facilities , budget , tools and materials , and so on . Without a suitable interaction ( as appropriate) between clones x Tread on it, then the performance ( production ) clones could slip away from the estimate .
However to develop clonal Forestry will be in touch with how to produce vegetative seedlings of selected clones . Useless we have selected clones well , already qualified and qualified industry - terms clones , but it is very difficult to breed ( propagation ) . The main task of Tree Improvement in time after completion of the selection of superior genetic material is how to multiply ( deployment ) the genetic material . Without reproduction , the genetic material is selected and it is just a superior record or display in the field . There should be a standard of success clonal deployment as a viable genetic material is said to be a clone to production scale . Propagation of these clones would involve rooting ability ( the ability to produce root ) and shoot ability ( the ability to produce trubusan ) . Seed trees ( plus trees ) or clones that have been selected in a clonal test should be tested for the ability to shoot and root yield ( shoots and roots ) , both with micro propagation method ( such as micro propagation tissue culture - tissue culture ) or macro propagation ( cutting or cuttings ) . Merencanaan clonal forestry useless if the ability to produce clonal shoot and root were selected was not operationally feasible mass . This will be related to the operational capability to produce seed for planting in the field needs .
Of course, very much needed infrastructure in running clonal Forestry . In addition to the availability of genetic material ( clones ) superior , of course, will not be separated from the supporting infrastructure to develop the clone instance Tissue culture laboratory ; Seedling Vegetative that requires a variety of terms , especially terms of humidity and temperature settings as well as the availability of sterilization of instruments and materials ; Gardens Crop ( orchard hedges ) that are likely to require a means of Green House ( greenhouse ) , means watering , fertilizing , plant care , and so on . In addition to generating a good interaction with the environment ( Tread ) it, then the supporting infrastructure such as soil maps , the data and change the nutrient content of the soil , pest and disease progression data , the data changes in the weather or rainfall , wind , temperature and humidity will is needed in planning clonal Forestry .
Eucalyptus clonal nursery in one of the companies in Brazil (Source : http://www.actforclimatejustice.org/ )
4 . Economic Aspects of Forestry clonal
The results of clonal forestry forestry course is optimal crop productivity . With high product uniformity , then one value that can be achieved by clonal forestry is of high economic value . It has been very generally known that the stands of Eucalyptus clone in the Brazilian state average can reach 45 m3/ha/tahun or the harvest period of 5-6 years will produce an average of 225-270 m3/ha , and if we compare it stands is not clones derived from the average could reach 25m3/ha/tahun or 125-150 m3/ha at harvest 5-6 years , then the product is different clonal forestry approximately 100 % compared with the non- clonal . But should we not struck by the production figures at the time of the harvest . The results of clonal forestry could be higher due to investment or capital invested is also higher than that of non - clonal . What is the ratio of cost ( cost ) of production to be really well calculated and analyzed before deciding operational clonal forestry . Clonal forestry requires a more complex infrastructure , human resources are more disciplined and higher competence , and course management Silviculture more detailed and rigorous . We are not going to result in the production of clones of Eucalyptus as high MAI 45m3/ha/tahun if we Silviculture engineering discipline level is still the same with the creation of the non- clonal stands ( seed ) and knowledge about the properties of clones that we handle will be very specific to each clone so human resources competence requires more optimal .
Clonal forestry did show fantastic results in the various countries that have developed it as Eucalyptus clonal forestry in Brazil , Chile , Argentina , Uruguay , South Africa , Australia , or clonal Pinus spp in Brazil , United States , Chile , Argentina , South Africa , Australia , New Zealand , etc. . But the success of clonal forestry in these countries must be supported by means of parasana very complete and of course the seriousness of resources and clonal forestry management run by the rules of science and other silvicultur .
In addition to media , water for Nursery also should be sterilized as Ralstonia solanacearum , also some other types of pathogens , are very easily transmitted through water flow .
Several methods of sterilization of water in the Nursery to be free of pathogens are as follows :
o Use of Chlorine as Sodium Hypochloride ( NaOCl ) or Calcium Hyprochloride ( CaOCl2 ) or bleach ( bleach ) which is often used in the household ( chlorine or Bayclin ) are very commonly used for disinfecting water . The trick is to mix NaOCl / CaOCl2 with a certain dose . Typically publicly traded bleach containing 3-6 % NaOCl equivalent to 30000-60000 ppm . For use in Nursery can be used doses 300-500 ppm , so for 1 liter of water given chlorine or Bayclin 0.3 - 0.5 ml . To make it easier to use 3-5 liters of water 10 ml of chlorine or Bayclin . Toss well and let the water and bleach are mixed evenly at least 30 minutes . ( doses used can also follow the recommendations on the label )
o In addition to the use of disinfectant , water for watering should also be kept clean and quality water that meets the standards for Nursery . The use of water purification materials ( coagulants ) such as Alum ( Al2 ( SO4 ) 3.18H2O ) or called by the name of PAC ( Poly Aluminum Chloride ) .
o Use of Irradiation Technology Ultra violet ( UV ) . This is a technology with the use of UV radiation to kill microorganisms . This technology is still expensive because it uses equipment and a trained operator specifications .
Sterilization methods work tool
Nursery sterilization work must be carried out to avoid the transmission of bacteria . Especially on the tool used for multiple plants at the same time as pruning shears in the green house .
Sterilization of tools that can be implemented adapted to the tool -making material as shown in the table below :
Materials / Equipment
How to sterilization
Metal / metal ( such as scissors , knives , hoes , shovels , rakes , etc. )
Desinfectan like Alcohol 70 % and bactericidal contact
· Wash and dip in solution desinfectan tool work for at least 10 seconds
· Each cutting plant cuttings in different stool scissors should be dipped into 70 % alcohol
Plastic / rubber soft ( eg gloves , aprons / apron , boat shoes , etc. ) and Wood
Desinfectan such as carbolic acid , Bayclin , chlorine , contact bactericide
· Wash and dip in solution desinfectan tool work for at least 10 seconds
· For boat shoe , make a sterilizing bath containing desinfectan at each entrance Stoolplants house , house and rooted cutting house . Prior to the entry into the work area must pass through sterilization tub
Plastic / rubber hard as a single tube , tray , bucket , box cuttings , seed box , etc. )
- Mechanical heating ( boiled )
- Desinfectan such as carbolic acid , chlorine , Bayclin , contact pesticides
· Put it in hot water ( > 70 ° C ) for 1 minute
· Wash and soak into the desinfectan for 5 minutes
Cuttings / cutting / seed ( water soaking the cuttings before planting )
Bactericidal example Agrept 20 WP , Kasumin 5/75 WP , etc. with appropriate concentrations of the pesticide label
Use bactericidal solution used for soaking water before planting rooted cuttings in the house . Water soaking seeds can also use bactericide .
Conveyance ( thrust rickshaw , car , other means of transport )
Desinfectan such as chlorine or Baylin ( Hypoclorit ) with the appropriate concentration of label
Flush entire conveyance or car ( vehicle ) which will be used in the area of Nursery ( Nursery ) with hypoclorit solution , especially the tire and the bottom of the vehicle that are often exposed to / in contact with the ground
3 . Routine monitoring and eradication
The spread of bacteria can take place very quickly and unexpectedly , so the monitoring of the health of the seeds is recommended. Monitoring is useful to limit the spread of bacteria , because if at the time of monitoring found seedlings are attacked then we can do the isolation ( separation of seeds affected) and then eradication ( destruction ) of the infected seeds by burning .
4 . Sign in to Nursery Access Regulation
Eucalyptus nursery that uses technology and cutting stoolplants ( cuttings ) are very prone to bacterial wilt disease because of the work carried out in the manufacturing plant wounding cuttings . Tissue wound infections become one of the main roads by the bacterium Ralstonia . It is inevitable . Which must be controlled is that all employees , tools , materials we use in the manufacturing process must be sterile seeds from seed this bacterium . Access control must be carried in and out of people, vehicles , materials and tools to and from the Nursery . Areas that must be strictly controlled is Stoolplant areas , House and Rooted Cutting Area . Doorway area to be determined and at each entrance should be available sterilization tub
5 . Environmental sanitation
Nursery became basic sanitation Disease control is most important. Avoid puddles , weeds and rubbish that was in the Nursery . Ralstonia very fond of damp and flooded areas and should be minimized . Eliminate weeds allows us to reduce the possibility of host plants . Some weed species that is becoming host Ralstonia Babadotan ( Ageratum spp . ) , Solanaceae ( eggplant forest ) , meniran ( Pylanthus spp . ) , Spinach - bayaman ( Amaranthus spp ) , and so on .
6 . Balanced Fertilization and Intensive Care
Balanced fertilization be one basis for integrated disease control . With the balanced fertilization plant health will be higher . Implementation of SOP fertilizer well and controlled the core application in the field . Maintenance should be carried out such as thinning of seedlings , watering , weed control , etc. , have been written in the SOP and we live and perform applying strict supervision .
7 . Control of chemical
Until this moment control with chemicals ( bactericidal ) for controlling this disease is still not demonstrated optimal results . A wide variety of bactericidal tried diaplikasaikan the affected plants were not able to properly control the bacterial attack . The use of bactericidal still limited to use for soaking or soaking seeds that will be planted cuttings . For Eucalyptus cuttings , can be used bactericide solution ( eg Agrept 20 WP or Kasumin ) as water immersion before cuttings were planted in a single tube . It is also to keep the transmission when there shoot that already contains bacteria and when cut and soaked in water will issue cuttings ooze and can infect others .
8 . Management Control Systems with the help of stool - plants and Tracking Clone / Cutting
The presence of bacterial wilt Ralstonia attack is very difficult to predict and detect quickly . The bacteria could have been entered into the plant tissue , but the plants have not shown symptoms ( we refer to the term symptomless ) or symptoms of latent ( hidden ) . Because of this condition , then action can be done is the making and implementation of management systems and tracking stoolplant cutting down to the ground .
Stoolplant management systems in question are :
- Each sand bed was coded ( numbering ) identification , such as sand beds 1 , 2 , 3 .. etc.
- Each sand bed historicalnya known ( eg planting date , source stool - Tissue culture plants are plants or topping results , developments survival , development of shoot production , maintenance types , etc. )
- Each sand beds have special tools that work ( primarily shoot pruning shears )
By managing stoolplant with the above system , the resulting expected to shoot up cutting production and ready for planting seeds ( BST ) it would be in tracking . If we find symptoms of bacterial wilt on the level of cutting or BST , then we can trace up to the sand bed . If the investigation results of the sand beds show positive results Ralstonia contamination , then we can immediately perform specific control measures only in the sand bed ( eg eradication , we are only going to do on the sand bed is found to be contaminated )
BST tracking system to be very useful to explore the field in case of attack bacterial wilt in the field . It is also to verify whether contamination occurs when bacteria in the stool - phase plants , in the cutting phase / Nursery , or indeed an attack occurs after planting in the field .
9 . Selection BST strictly
The application is ready for planting seed selection ( BST ) which will be planted into the ground should be run. Prudence in packing , transportation and maintenance BST before planting a priority in order to avoid injury to the plants . Selection BST cultivated with strict regard to health element seedlings . The seeds that have disabilities ( eg due to other pathogens attack ) is not sent to the cultivated field.
10 . Control of the biological pesticide materials / organic
Many studies conducted in the field of agriculture to find Ralstonia control techniques with biological materials and organic materials , but often have difficulty at the time of application to the field . Research conducted generally successfully implemented in the laboratory or in the greenhouse , but when applied to the field often give as good results as experiments in the laboratory or greenhouse .
Some extracts of plants that successfully suppress the development of bacteria Ralstonia is noni extract , extract gambier , clove extract and turmeric extract
In addition to using natural pesticides ( organic ) - biopesticide - many also tried using microorganisms that are antagonistic to Ralstonia but do not disturb the plants . Even widely studied types of microorganisms that also provide positive benefits to the plant and there is this group called PGPR ( Plant Growth - Promoting Rhizobacteria ) . Some PGPR that have been tested and show good results is the group Actinomycetes , Azospirillum , and Bacillus . Several types of microorganisms are able to try and suppress the development of Ralstonia and has been tested in various crops are shown in Table below :
The level of antagonism
Sources : Bustaman H , ( 2006)
Effective microorganisms ( EM )
Source: Lwin M and Ranamukharachchi
Microorganisms and plant extracts
Biopesticides Persada + papaya leaf extract , betel leaves, galangal , sambiroto , and garlic ( biopesticides PERSADA is Bali's Udayana Faperta products )
Moderate and Good
Sources : I B K Suastika and A.A.N. B The Mansion , ( 2005)
Tomatoes and potatoes
Sources : Heru A Djatmiko et al ( 2007)
Source: In Giacomami et al ( 2005)
Streptomyces sp .
Source: Moura , 1996
N.A.S.Messiha et al ( 2006 )
Pseudomonas fluorescens and P.putida
L.X Ran et al ( 2005)
Very often the use of PGPR or biological pesticides having problems in the application in the field . Differences in environmental conditions where these pesticides diaplikasikannya with the condition found and developed into biological control microorganisms is very influential on the effectiveness of this biopesticide . Some experts say the use of biopesticides in controlling Ralstonia often constrained due to :
- The diversity of Ralstonia so biovar type or biological control agents are also very diverse
- The diversity of strains of microorganisms as biological control agents , and very specific to each region / tread
- Cost , time and technology laboratory complex to mengektraksi microorganisms into biological control agents
- Applications in the field often do not show the results because of climate change / weather can not be controlled as in a laboratory or in a greenhouse (green house )
Today many products as biopestida diclaim outstanding and traded in the society . For example, products Ornamental Plants Research Center that sell products under the name Bio PF ( containing bacterial control agents causing bacterial wilt disease ) , Bio GL , Gliocompost and Prima BAPF . Also there is a product on the claim as a biological control is capable of controlling diseases caused by fungi and bacteria such as brand GLIOCLADIUM . However , testing of the effectiveness of the above material against Ralstonia control still needs to be studied and researched further .
CONTROL bacterial wilt in the crop EUCALYPTUS
Control of bacterial wilt disease in plants in the field is actually in line with the concept of integrated control (integrated pest management ) because no one metodepun can properly control the disease if the control techniques implemented separately ( partial ) . Prevention ( Preventive ) is the core of the control when plants are attacked because it is very difficult to cure .
Businesses - businesses that control can be implemented are :
Maintenance BST at planting time to prevent damage or injury in the absence of seeds that have been selected from the Nursery ( nursery ) . At the time of the transport process from the seeds and vans to be undertaken in order to avoid injury . Action BST watering and shade before planting should be carried out so that the health and optimum freshness until BST seedlings planted . Transportation seeds using a single tube and the basket is one way to reduce the damage / injury seedlings .
At the time of the release of the single tube BST , should be sought as much as possible to allow the seedling was not injured .
2 . Intensive weed control ( Environmental Sanitation )
As described above several types of weeds usually will also be host plants Ralstonia and usually does not indicate the absence of wilting symptoms ( symtopless ) . Treatment of pre- plant spraying before planting should be implemented properly so that all potential weed hosts can be destroyed .
At the time of execution of manual weeding must be considered in order not to make cuts in major crop plants due to injury
3 . Routine monitoring
Monitoring the health of stands in each plot / compartemen plant is needed to determine whether there are plants that are attacked by the disease . Routine monitoring can be implemented with a sampling system or involve plantation assessment team ( PAT ) or plant inventory team . If there is a special team who worked on it will be better monitoring .
In the calculation of monitoring the number of plants to disease or other pests . By monitoring the data can be obtained with potential spread of pests and diseases that can be implemented immediately efforts to reduce its spread .
The intensity of sampling for routine monitoring ( normal state ) was conducted using sampling with sampling intensity of 2 % and observation plots with an area of 200 m2 , or 0.02 ha circle ( radius 7.98 m ) . If the routine monitoring of the disease is known to have serious then sampling intensity can be increased or census .
4 . Eliminate potential waterlog ( inundation )
From various studies in agriculture and forestry crops , waterlog ( inundation ) will cause a variety of negative effects on the plant , including the development of pathogenic microorganisms .
Waterlog also a negative effect on plant health , as it will create anaerobic conditions in the root zone , the emergence of toxic gases due to a chemical reaction with the water in the water ( eg onset of H2S , ammonia , etc. ) , increasing the rate of transpiration of plants that deplete energy plants ( out of balance between photosynthesis , transpiration and respiration ) , and inhibition of the formation of new cells .
Waterlog clearly will reduce plant health and make self-defense that plants will be lower , while the increased development around the plant pathogens .
5 . Chemical treatment ( bactericide ) on Plants attacked
Bactericidal applications on the plant bacterial wilt disease has been tested in many different areas , but so far as Agrept bactericidal effectiveness or Kasumin still debated .
6 . Eradication of infected plants
Eradication of affected plants is actually an effective measure to prevent the spread of bacterial wilt disease . Plants that have been attacked in pieces , then the remaining pieces covered or smeared with tar , bactericidal or alcohol so that ooze coming out does not spread to other places .
We must be careful in doing this that the eradication of bacteria remaining in the plant tissue or in the soil around infected plants do not move or spread to plants or other areas .
The things that must be considered in eradication measures are :
- The remaining parts of the affected plants should be burned
- If any part of the plant is cut ( eg base of the stem ) , then the cut should be covered with tar , or alcohol or bactericidal so bacteria does not get out
- Where possible demolition roots ( the young plants ) , then the demolition of the former land sprinkled with dolomite or roots should be watered with a bactericide .
- Root hole dismantling used sprinkled Dolomite or bactericidal solution , then left open so that sunlight can enter and suppress the growth of bacteria . In addition to Dolomite also proved that Phosporous Acid ( H3PO3 ) can suppress the development of R. This solution is sprinkled with the soil that had been infected (soil dressing )
- Working tools such as hoes , shears , machetes , work shoes , gloves and other tools used in the eradication must be cleaned and sterilized with desinfectan ( alcohol or carbolic acid ) or bactericidal so there could potentially be a spreader of bacteria .
Eradication should be carried out in the summer because the sun helps the process of sterilization of bacteria in the soil . Problems occur when the eradication carried out during the rainy season is difficult to implement in addition cut tissue burning , potentially spreading rain also dug soil plants eradicated and this can be a problem at other plants .
How eradication :
- Prepare special tools and materials used for the eradication ie scissors , machetes , saws , hoes , shovels , cotton , plastic boat shoes , rubber gloves , desinfectan ( 70 % alcohol or carbolic acid ) , bactericidal , Dolomite , and fuel oils such as diesel or kerosene
- Define tree eradicated
- Wear rubber gloves and boots boat
- Pluck the strings skillfully / Ruin all the leaves of the trees to be eradicated and collect at the bottom of the tree
- Scissors or prune branches that eradicated . Shears or saws that are used must be sterilized with rubbing alcohol 70 % or carbolic acid ( with cotton )
- If the tree is still small , cut the stem from the base of the stem and make small pieces ( chopped ) and the remaining pieces in the base of the stem should be smeared with alcohol or carbolic acid to avoid being scattered, ooze , then wrap in a plastic bag containing a moist cotton swab that has been dipped into bactericidal solution .
- After that collect all the leaves , stems , twigs , chopped stems , weeds , litter , twigs around the tree and cotton are used for greasing , so the radius of 1.5 m from the base of the stem to be eradicated is clean and become firebreaks .
- Perform combustion by spraying diesel or kerosene . The entire rest of the leaves , twigs and weeds are collected and burned to the ground should be ash .
- If possible , after the demolition done by digging rods and collect all the roots of the tree and re- do the burning
- Holes must be dug sprinkled or sprayed with a solution of Dolomite bactericidal dose of 1-2 ml / liter of water as much as 1-2 liters / tree in eradication (soil dressing )
7 . balanced fertilization
The concept of balanced fertilization as well as the concept of balanced fertilization in the Nursery . With balanced fertilization is expected the plant will have a level of health that is sufficient to defend against pathogen attack . Implementation of SOP well is one of the basic make healthy plants and have a good self- defense against pathogen attack .
There are several studies on agricultural crops indicates that CaO + urea fertilization can reduce the attack of bacterial wilt on tomato plants ( Michel , VV et al 1977) . While Yamakazi ( 2000 ) proved that the increase in Ca concentration in the soil is negatively correlated with the level of bacterial wilt on tomato attack , meaning that the higher the Ca content of bacterial wilt attacks will be smaller . ( source : http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article ) In the potato crop in Uganda demonstrated that fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus and complete with NPK fertilization results of bacterial wilt attacks are the lowest compared to single fertilization ( N or P alone alone or K only ) . ( source : http://www.bioline.org.br/request?cs01057 )
Research in the U.S. shows that the content of Ca , B and C no pride in the leaves of tomato plants that survived the attack bacterial wilt , and this is presumably because this nutrient is important in enhancing the defense capabilities of the plant bacterial wilt attack ( Gokhan H et al 2006 ) .
8 . Crop rotation and management of stands ( stand management)
Crop rotation are widely applied in agricultural crops . This method was able to reduce losses due to bacterial wilt disease . Crop rotation in agricultural crops is very possible because age is generally short -cycle crops ( monthly ) so that the effectiveness of crop rotation is very high , but when we talk about forest plants Plants that an average of 1 cycle takes 5-8 years , the concept of crop rotation this should be an integrated work plan involving various aspects such as production aspects and economical aspects . Substitution of each cycle plant species will be a problem related to the technical implementation in conjunction with HTI and industrial elements into a timber which supplies raw materials .
The selection of resistant clones will be associated with the breeding work ( tree improvement) and this should be related to aspects of the management of stands like setting blocks / plant compartment . It can be implemented :
- Conformity clone according to their interaction with the site should be maximized in order to plant health can be improved .
- Use multiclone highly obliged . The use of the clone will be at high risk if there is an attack or other disease bacterial wilt resistance , especially if the low clone . The pattern blocks / compartemen monoclonal compartment system needs to be set so that one clone plants at one compartemen not related to the same clone in different compartemen . This concept has been applied in various plantation companies who develop such a clone of Eucalyptus in Brazil , Argentina , South Africa , Venezuela , Chile and Colombia .
9 . Cutting Parts Plant is Wilting
Cutting the plant Eucalyptus bacterial wilt disease that is considered healthy section has been tried in various companies . Used pieces smeared with bactericide . The hope will grow healthy new shoots . This technique still needs to be studied further because there is no satisfactory results are reported .
Ralstonia spread in various places and have very many host plants . These bacteria would be a problem when attacking plants . But we also have to understand , that the presence of these bacteria should not discourage or stop the spirit of plantation development efforts with Eucalyptus plants . The main one is to determine the presence of bacteria , we must be vigilant and more aware that plantation development should be carried out carefully and follow existing standards .
Plants can be attacked or potential terserangnya greater if :
- There is a wound on the plant
- Bacteria have been carried over from seed or from seedlings ( stoolplants )
- Unsanitary plant conditions ( weak resistance ) , for example due to shallow planting hole , unbalanced fertilizer , weed free low, etc.
- The environment in which the bacteria grow in the field support the breed well ( eg poor sanitation , waterlog , etc. )
Losses incurred very large if not controlled immediately . The most effective control measure is an attempt PREVENTIVE ( prevention ) .
Most prevention efforts is the implementation of the SOP can be implemented well , both in the Nursery and in the field . With the adoption of SOP , routine monitoring , and environmental sanitation , we believe the level of bacterial attacks can be frightening to a minimum in press .
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The genus Eucalyptus in the world consisting of over 700 species and 138 varieties , where the outside of the species and varieties that have been known to still be discovered species and new varieties belonging to the genus Eucalyptus ( Blakley , 1955 ; Johnston and Marryatt 1965; Penford and Willis , 1961 in Krugman and Whitesell ( ? ) ; Rockwood et al 2008, Flynn ( ? ) ; www.wikipedia.org , Heathcore , 2002 , White , 1993) . Species belonging to the genus Eucalyptus has the shape of a tree with a main trunk high , however some species in this genus there in the form of woody shrubs ( Jacobs , 1979 in Krugman and Whitesell , ? ) . The genus Eucalyptus generally grow naturally in Australia , but some species grow naturally in the Philippines , Papua New Guinea , and the island of Timor in Indonesia ( Hall et al in Krugman and Whitesell , 1963) . The genus Eucalyptus is one genus that is widely cultivated in the form of plantations in various parts of the world , the tree can be used as an ornament , a shade tree , soil conservation , carpentry and wood pulp or pulp ( Chippendale et al in Krugman and Whitesell ( ? ) ; Heathcore , 2002; http://www.anbg.gov.au ; Turnbull , 1999) . More details http://www.bracelpa.org/ say , Eucalyptus can be used for various purposes both for wood fiber for various paper industry , wood carpentry , furniture , poles , boards , plywood , food sources such as honey , particle board , essential oils , etc. .
According to Evans (1992 ) , Eucalyptus spp occupying 37.5 % of the total area of forest plantations in the tropics in 1980 , while according to Ball (1993 ) , Brown ( 2000) , Flynn ( ? ) And Varmola and Carle (2002 ) , Eucalyptus as one hardwood timber species is important as a supplier of the world until 1995 there was an additional broad and extensive plantations of Eucalyptus plantations reached 17.7 % of the total area of forest plantations in the world , or 9.9 million hectares of forest plantations in the world in the same area of 56.3 million hectares as shown in the chart below :
While the FAO (2006 , 2007) reported that the development of forest plantations in the world until the year 2005 has reached 181 million hectares and 10 countries with the largest forest area plants are China , India , USA , Russia , Japan , Sweden , Poland , Sudan , Brazil and Finland . While this type - the type that was developed as a staple crop consisted of 2 groups: hardwood and softwood . For groups of hardwoods dominated by Eucalyptus spp . Acacia spp . and Tectona grandis .
Meanwhile Rockwood et al ( 2008) reported , Eucalyptus has been developed into one of the important species in industrial plantations in almost 90 countries and has reached an area of 18 million hectares in both the tropical and sub- tropical regions in South America , Asia , Africa and Australia or in temperate regions such as North America , Europe , South America and South Australia and by Turnbull (1999 ) , the development of Eucalyptus spp . already begun in the 18th century with the introduction of Eucalyptus from Australia in continental Europe by Charles Louis L' Heritier de Brutelle , a French botanist . From then on , the development of Eucalyptus continues to spread to many countries . According to White (1993 ) , the development of Eucalyptus to India began in 1790 , while in Nepal in 1890 and Thailand in 1905 . Eucalyptus was introduced to Southeast Asia around 1770 by a botanist named Sir Joseph Banks on James Cook expedition ( http://www.wikipedia.org/ ) . Meanwhile, according Munishi (2007 ) , the development of commercial Eucalyptus has been started in 1860 in Victoria Australia especially for the development of pharmaceutical products .
According to Carle and Holmgren (2008 ) , when stratified by region , then until 2005 in the world there have been 13.8 million hectares of Eucalyptus and the region has an area of Eucalyptus plantations widest ie 7.6 million hectares , followed by the South American region covering an area of 4.5 million hectares and the area Africa covering an area of 1.2 million hectares and the rest is in the Oceania region covering an area of 0.5 million hectares . It is estimated that by 2030 widespread Eucalyptus in Asia will reach 10.6 million hectares . Asia Pacific region will be important in producing wood Eucalyptus spp . through plantations ( Ball , 1993 )
According to Rockwood et al ( 2008) , in 2000 , India has an area of Eucalyptus plant world , reaching 8 million hectares , followed by Brazil's state with an area of 3 million hectares with an average productivity of 45-60 m3/ha/tahun . FAO (2005 ) reported that the development of eucalyptus until 2005 nearly 13 million acres in major countries including Congo , Indonesia , China , Malaysia , Thailand , France , Portugal , New Zealand and the United States . Even China reportedly planted Eucalyptus state area + / - 3500-43000 ha / year and the development of forest plantations in China is expected to reach 325000-1 .100.000 20 Ha in recent years and is dominated by Eucalyptus species . While Barr and Cossalter (2004 ) says , the development of Eucalyptus species in China is dominated by species E.urophylla , E.teriticornis , and some hybrid like E.urophylla X E.grandis , E.gradis X E.urophylla and E.teriticornis X E . urophylla mainly in three provinces of Hainan , Guangdong and Guangxi and planting is estimated at 65,000 ha / year with an average of 10-20 m3/ha/tahun MAI depends on the location and level of forest plantation management . Minsheng ( 2003) says , the Chinese initially develop two types of Eucalyptus is E.citodora and E.exserta in 1960-1980 , but then since 1980 doing a variety of other Eucalyptus species research including creation of hybrid clones to find that according to the climate and land in China . Various species tested were E.grandis , E.urophylla , E.camaldulensis , E.wetarensis , E.pellita , E.dunii , E.globulus , E.simithii , E.cloeziana , E.maidenii , E.salina and E . benthamii . It is also mentioned in addition to test species and provenance , breeding activities are also conducted to find superior clones and clones that have been selected from potentials obtained between 40-50 m3/ha/tahun growth , although the growth in commercial Eucalyptus plantation in China has a wide range that is between 10-70 m3/ha/tahun while Lal ( 2003) mentions , Eucalyptus clone in India the average yield MAI 20-25m3/ha/tahun on a commercial scale , although some areas may result in MAI 50 m3/ha/tahun .
Most types of Eucalyptus hybrid developed at this time is the result of the first generation ( F1 ) and generally comes from Maidenaria section ( eg E.globulus and E.nitens ) , Exsertaria ( eg E.camaldulensis and E.teriticornis ) , and Transversaria ( which has been amended be Latoangulatae , Broker in Payn , 2008) for example E.pellita , E.grandis and E.urophylla which is a sub- genus of Symphyomyrtus ( Griffin ; Eldridge in Payn , 2008) . Extensive planting of Eucalyptus sp . in the world in the form of plantations can be seen in the table below :
Extent and age structure of Eucalyptus spp plantations . in different countries in 1995 ( FAO , 2006, in Rockwood et al 2008)
While according to James and Lungo (2005 ) , several other countries are also developing Eucalyptus spp . as the main crop plants in the forest as shown in the table below :
It was also reported by Rockwood et al (2008 ) that the Eucalyptus spp . which is widely grown in plantations also include hybrid types ( crosses ) and 4 species are often dikawinsilangkan to obtain " new genetic material - hybrid " is a type of E. grandis , E.urophylla , E.camaldulensis and E.globulus and nearly 80 % of the forest area Eucayptus plants in the world . Furthermore, according to James and Lungo (2005 ) and Varmola and Carle (2002 ) , that of the dozens of types developed as a staple crop in plantations in various countries then there are 16 species that dominate namely Pinus spp . , Havea brasilensis , Eucalyptus spp . , Populus spp . , Tectona grandis , Pinus radiata , Eucalyptus grandis , Pinus , Pinus taeda , Acacia nilotica , Eucalyptus globulus , Acacia auriculiformis , Eucalyptus saligna , P.elliotii , Pinus caribaea var . Hondurensis and Gmelina arborea . From the list of the known species such as Eucalyptus Eucalyptus spp developed . , E.grandis , E.globulus and E.saligna . Surely grouping into species Eucalyptus spp . based on the number of Eucalyptus species are developed and the possibility of inter- species hybrid . When grouped into two major groups , namely the type and Non - Conifer Conifer , then in the group of Non - Conifer species of Eucalyptus spp . being the most dominant .
According to Moore and Jopson (2008 ) , the use of eucalyptus as raw material for pulp and paper are very large in number along with a Demand for the manufacture of Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Bleach ( BEKP ) which reached 2 million tons in 1980 to 10 million tons in 2005 . Eucalyptus pulp has contributed 50 % to the production of pulp in the world and more than 20 % of chemical pulp production . However South America is still the eucalyptus pulp producer in the world with 57 % of the entire world production of eucalyptus pulp and Brazil occupy the highest position in the continent , after Asia came in second with 13 % and followed by 12 % while the rest of Africa Oceania and Europe are each respectively 10 % and 8 % .
Besides being used as a raw material pulp , Eucalyptus is also used for various purposes such as wood carpentry ( solid wood ) , veneer , wood fuel ( wood energy ) and other needs for various industries cosmetics , pharmaceuticals and other chemical industries .
Here is presented information about each Eucalyptus species commonly developed as a staple crop Plantation Forests ( Forest plantation ) in various parts of the world , especially in the tropics :
1 . Eucalyptus urophylla
a) Name of Botany . Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake. The name is derived from the Latin urophylla ura = tail and phyllon = leaf . This species has a similar leaf shape with Eucalyptus and Eucalyptus alba decaisneana , even some people are often mistaken for determining E. urophylla because the two species are similar to the above . Synonym : Eucalyptus alba Reinw . ex Blume Blume Eucalyptus decaisneana ( http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ )
b ) Family . Eucalyptus urophylla belongs to the family Myrtaceae ( guava - jambuan )
c ) Common name . Timor mountain gum ( English ) , ampupu and Palavao preto ( Indonesia) .
d ) description of Botany ( Botanical Features ) . At a place in the natural spread of natural forest , this species has a tree up to 24-45 m high and has a diameter of up to more than 1 m , with a straight trunk that reaches round and a half to two- thirds of the whole tree height . E.urophylla species has also been found to have up to 55 m high with a diameter of more than 2 m . In extreme environmental conditions of this species can be very different from the growth in a good neighborhood , in the extreme environments of this species can only be a woody shrub with a gnarled trunk and had only a few meters high . This species is also known to have characteristic bark that is affected by humidity and altitude growing , trees that grow below an altitude of 1000 m asl found on the island of Alor and Flores have relatively smooth skin . While living trees on the site with an altitude of 1000 m asl - 2000 m d.p.l. as found on the island of Timor with humid conditions , usually bark streaked shallow . In place of the original grow , this species is usually found associated with E. alba and suspected interbreeding occurred between the two , the result is an individual who has a character tree trunk between E.urophylla and E.alba . Begin the fertilization process is characterized by the release of a wreath -shaped flowers ( inflorence ) , is white . Flower season lasts from January to March , while the fruit is ripe and ready for harvest in June through September . Fertilization occurs periodically every year . ( Atlas of Indonesian Forest Tree Seed , Seed Technology Center , Ministry of Forestry )
e ) The spread of Growing Places . E.urophylla natural distribution of species in Indonesia. Its main distribution is on the island of Timor , Alor and Wetar , but some small population of this species is also found on the island of Flores , Adonara , Lomblen and Pantar . Location within the native range extends approximately 500 miles between the east longitude 122 ° to 127 ° east longitude , 7 ° 30' - 10 ° South latitude , altitude 90-2200 m asl The breadth of the range of altitude grown E.urophylla make it as a species of the genus Eucalyptus that has a height range where the greatest growth .
As Exotic plants developed in various countries such as Australia , Brazil , Cameroon , China , Congo , Côte d'Ivoire , French Guiana , Gabon , Madagascar , Malaysia , Papua New Guinea , Vietnam , etc. . ( http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ ; Payn , 2008; Vozzo ( ? ) )
f ) climate . E.urophylla scattered from start to hot climates , humid to sub - humid . Growing up in the area with an altitude of 400 m d.p.l. with an annual average temperature of 25 ° C to an altitude of 1900 m asl with an annual average temperature of 15 ° C. In many stands of Timor Island E.urophylla grow at altitudes above 1000 m asl where environmental conditions are often foggy , with rainfall 1300-2200 mm / year and dry season in the span of 3-4 months . However on the other islands in the native range , this species grows well in dry areas with rainfall 800-1500 mm with a dry season in the span of 5-8 months .
g ) physiographic and soil . E.urophylla generally found to be the dominant species in secondary forests in the mountains . Grown on mountain slopes and valleys . It grows well in deep soil , moist / wet , well drained soil with a pH that is near neutral formed from volcanic eruptions or changes in the shape of a rock .
h ) Type of vegetation . E.urophylla is the dominant species in secondary montane forest , in the natural spread of this species associated with Casuarina junghuhniana , Palaquium , Planchonella , Pygeum , and Podocarpus . In place grows with altitude below 1500 m asl distribution of stands E.urophylla forming a mosaic pattern and association with E.alba .
i ) Benefits / E.urophylla use . Wood of this species , especially from young plants are very good to use to firewood and charcoal . Besides this species also has a timber that can be used for woodworking and pulp as raw material has excellent properties of wood . Wood density in wet conditions shortly after harvesting from natural forest stands at around 960 kg/m3 . Nevertheless , the value of basic density E.urophylla has the lowest when compared with the species of the genus Eucalyptus others , in dry conditions the furnace is 540-570 kg/m3 ( Forestry Compendium , CAB International in http://www.agroforestry.org / )
Slightly stringy texture of the wood , but it is easy to do ( processed ) , and produces good timber processing to be used as flooring ( flooring ) , the board , and for wood construction . In Brazil wood of this species is excellent for use as a raw material pulp , because it has a very good wood properties . Relatively short fibers with a length of about 1.0 mm . The wood is very good as the raw material of pulp production , with the production of chemical systems are known to produce a pulp yield of 49.5 % . Wood from old trees , very nice to use as a material for construction .
j ) Silviculture types . Selection provenance is very important if we are going to cultivate E.urophylla . The results of several trials showed that the provenance provenance originating from altitudes above 1500 m asl grow , resulting in poor growth if planted in the lowlands , while the provenance that comes from growing with ketinggia 300-1100 m asl ( lowland ) , known to exhibit good growth if planted in low-lying areas . In addition provenance from lowland dry climate conditions , showed good growth when cultivated in the sub - humid climatic conditions humid , sub- tropical to tropical dry months 1-5 months , even in areas that experience winter . E.urophylla usually propagated using seeds / seedlings . The number of seeds per kg of seed reached 450,000 . The tree will begin flowering at the age of 2 years , and will begin to produce seeds that much at the age of 4 years . Nursery this species was initiated by sowing seeds , before sowing seed which was not given any treatment . After sowing , when the seedlings already have 2 pairs of leaves , the seedlings will be transferred to the container . As the media grows very well used medium crumb and well drained . Seedlings will be ready to be planted in the ground when it reaches a height of at least 25 cm , with a production period of 10-12 weeks . Additionally E.urophylla or hybrid of E.urophylla and E.grandis can be propagated by vegetative system through stem cuttings . Intensive silviculture with tillage and fertilizer application of N, P and K are essential to produce good plant growth . This species is very sensitive in competing with weeds , so at the age of 12 months until the plants should be in a weed -free condition .
E.urophylla has excellent growth if environmental conditions favor , with the environment and good silviculture stands of this species is able to have a 20-30 MAI m3/ha/tahun . Particular provenance can even generate up to 50 m3/ha/tahun MAI . E.urophylla with excellent growth are in South America such as Brazil , Africa such as Cameroon , Congo and Ivory Coast . Provenance derived from the lowlands as originating from the island of Flores , Alor and Timor usually have faster growth ( Vercoe and House 1992) .
k ) Pests and diseases . Cancer stem caused by Cryphonectria cubensis , fungus attacks the roots caused by Botryodiplodia sp . Fusarium and Helminthosporium sp sp . Are some diseases that are known to attack trees E.urophylla . In addition to seeds and small plants , termite and borer attack caused by Zeuzera Coffea . ( Hanum and van der Maesen , ed . 1997)
2 . Eucalyptus pellita
a) Name of Botany . Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell . First published in 1864 . The name is derived from pellitus = pellita Leather Cover , this term refers to the epidermal layer of leaves mepunyai .
b ) Common Name . In Australia, known as the red mahagony .
c ) Family . Myrtaceae ( guava - jambuan )
d ) description of Botany . E.pellita has a medium sized tree with a tall tree reaching 40 m and a diameter of up to 1 m . Has a straight trunk up to half of the height of the tree . Environmental conditions that do not fit this species is only able to reach 15-20 m height alone .
e ) Distribution of Natural . E.pellita spread in two main areas , namely , in the area of Muting Papua and Papua New Guinea as well as in Queensland . Located in the geographic location of 12 ° 45' - 18 ° 40 ' South Latitude ( For regional distribution in Australia ) and 7 ° 30' - 8 ° 35 ' South latitude ( for local distribution in Papua ) . Elevation grow from 0-800 m d.p.l. ( for distribution Australia ) and 30-90 m above sea level ( for distribution in Papua ) .
f ) climate . This species is grown either in a warm humid climate zone , with maximum temperatures in the dry season peak at 24 ° -34 ° C , and the average temperature in the wet months 4 ° C - 19 ° C. Average rainfall 1000-4000 mm / year .
g ) Physiographic and Soil Conditions . The Papuan population is scattered dispersed species ( scatter ) , growing location that is between the open area wet due to poor drainage and has a lush rainforest . The growth of elongated and narrow in the middle of these two locations , with a width of about 100 m course . Land where the growth is very varied ranging from shallow sandy soil mixed with rocks, shallow podzolic soil , clay soil too deep . In Papua this species is also found growing on red soils with clay and clay loam texture .
h ) Type of vegetation . E.pellita ( mahogany red / red mahagony ) , grows in open forest areas . Associated with E.teriticornis , E.tessellaris , E.intermedia , E.torelliana . In Papua E.pellita associated with E.brassiana , and is known to occur hybrid between the two. Also in Papua is also associated with Acacia aulacocarpa , A.mangium , Laphostemon suaveolans ( Paijman 1976) .
( Quoted Doran and Turnbull , 1997, Hardwood et al , 1997, http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/ )
3 . Eucalyptus camaldulensis
a) Name of Botany . Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh . The name is derived from the name of the town camaldulensis Camalduli , in Tuscany Italy , a place where the species is cultivated . This species was first published in 1832 .
b ) Family . Eucalyptus camaldulensis belongs to the family Myrtaceae ( guava - jambuan )
c ) Common name . River Red Gum , Red Gum , Murray red gum , gum River ( Australia )
d ) description of Botany ( Botanical Features ) . In Australia , the average E.camaldulensis tree reaches a height of 20 m , even reaching 50 m tall , with a DBH of 1-2 m or more . In an open area with a number of rare plants , the species of trees that form a short , fat and with tuberous stems , and canopy width . On the plantation , this species is able to grow up to 20 m tall stems , with a canopy that is not too wide . Her skin was smooth and white , gray , or brown .
e ) Distribution of Natural . E.camaldulensis is widespread in a variety of locations , like any other genus Eucalyptus . Especially in mainland Australia . Growing along streams and flooded low-lying temporary . But it is also found in highland areas . Scattered at 12 ° 30' geographical position 38 ° South latitude and altitude of 20-700 m above sea level grows
f ) climate . E.camaldulensis grow on a variety of climatic conditions , from warm to hot regions , sub - humid to semi - arid , with average temperatures in the dry reaches 24-40 ° C , and the average temperature in wet reaches 3 - 15 ° C. Average annual precipitation is 250-600 mm .
g ) physiographic and soil . E.camaldulensis grow on various soil types . Grow well in soil with a high clay texture ( heavy clay ) , also grows well on alluvial soil with sand texture .
h ) Type of vegetation . E.camaldulensis is a species that grows along the banks of the river , and in the arid regions of Australia . In areas closer to the plateau in Australia , the species is associated with E.coolabab , E.largiflorens , E.leucoxylon , E.microcarpa , and E.melliondra .
i ) Benefits / uses . Wood from E.camaldulensis excellent for use as firewood and charcoal , even in some countries , many E.camaldulensis wood used for the production of charcoal as a source of energy in the iron and steel mills . This species has a fairly good density and good trubusan capabilities making it suitable timber used for energy . Additionally timber from a good tree , can be used for furniture , because it has an attractive wood character . This species has a density of 500-700 kg/m3 wet wood to wood from young plants and 1130 kg/m3 for wood from old plants . Because densitynya high enough so the wood of this species is able to produce a high yield if it will be manufactured into charcoal or pulp ( Moura 1986) .
j ) Silviculture types . E.camaldulensis been developed by using seeds . Number of seeds per kg of seed to reach 700,000 . Good seed has a moisture content of 5-8 % and can be done at the place of storage to the storage temperature of 3-5 ° C , so that the seeds can be maintained with good viability for up to several years . No seed treatment before sowing . Seeds sown shaded place with optimum temperature 32 ° C. Seeds will begin to germinate on the seventh day after sowing . Once the sprouts can be weaned into the container . Shade is needed during the first week after weaning . Seedlings are transferred to the field when the high reached 30 cm with the production period of 12 weeks . In addition , this species can be developed vegetatively using stem cuttings . Weed control is very important , because this species is very sensitive to the weeds . Application of a complete fertilizer N , P and K greatly affect plant growth . This species is capable of producing up to 70 m3/ha/tahun wood at the age of 4 years if planted in a suitable place and good irrigation . But that does not conform to the conditions of growth could be less well with the results of 5-10 m3/ha/tahun ie on dry areas .
k ) Pests and diseases . In this species can be affected nursery fungi that cause damping - off ( fall seedling ) , stem rot and leaf spot . In addition termite attack also attacked seedlings in the nursery . If already a stand , this species can be attacked by various insects and fungi .
( Quoted from the Australian Trees and Shrub essay Doran and Turnbull 1997; http://www.proseanet.org/prohati2 ; BOSTID , 1983 ; Vozzo , ( ? ) ; http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream )
4 . Eucalyptus grandis
a) Name of Botany . Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden
b ) Family . Eucalyptus grandis belongs to the family Myrtaceae ( guava - jambuan )
c ) Common name . Rose Gum , Flooded Gum ( Australia )
d ) description of Botany ( Botanical Features ) . E.grandis ( rose gum ) are the main species grown in primary forests of Queensland and New Sout Wales Australia . The tree can reach a height of 43-55 m and a diameter reaching 122-183 cm . Form of the tree is very tall , straight and branch -free trunk reaches two- thirds of the height of the tree . His skin is thin and slightly peeling , skin fluted vertical smooth surfaces , marked with a white stripe stripe - silver , gray , terra cotta , or light green . At a height of up to 2 m from the base of the stem , bark looks cracked vertically .
e ) Distribution of Natural . E.grandis -borne naturally in the area berlembah or flat which is at a distance of about 160 km from the sea , located in Queensland and New South Wales to the geographical position of 26-30 ° south latitude and 13 ° south latitude .
f ) Climate : E.grandis grows naturally in areas with humid climates - sub- tropical with an average minimum temperature during the wet season is 2-10 ° C , and the average maximum temperature during the dry months is 29 ° C. Rainfall annual average 1020-1780 mm .
g ) physiographic regions and Soil : E.grandis grow on flat areas or on steep slopes in Queensland and New South Wales . This species grows well in places that are damp or wet , well drained , soil in , argillaceous alluvial soil derived from volcanic eruptions . This species can also be grown on soil with clay texture , as long as it has good drainage .
h ) Type of vegetation : E.grandis growing in an open area in its natural place , berasasosiasi E. intermedia , E. pilularis , E. microcorys , E. resinifera , and E. saligna , as well as Syncarpia glomulifera , Tristania conferta , and Casuarina torulos . E.grandis usually grow around a tropical rain forest , also found in the tropical rain forest .
i ) Benefits / uses . Wood from E.grandis have a bright pink color on the outside and red on the dusky wood middle. E.grandis wood is widely used for construction purposes , wooden utensils , plywood , panels , for the manufacture of boats and poles . Besides the wood of the species can be used as raw material pulp . Basic Density in dry conditions Katu E.grandis furnace about 450 kg/m3 .
j ) Silviculture types . E.grandis is very intolerant species , so it is to be stunted if there is shade . Fertilization and weed control is unbelievably important . Weed control after planting is done intensively , known to be very influential to improve plant growth . Application of herbicides for weed control should be performed until 24 months after planting .
k ) Pests and diseases . In the nursery seedlings can be attacked by Cylindrocladium scoparium E.grandis that causes stem rot on seedlings . E.grandis in plantation can undergo stem cancer caused by Cryphonectria cubensis . In a country of India also reported that this species in plantation age of 1 year can also attacked by termites .
( quoted from Meskimen and Francis in http://www.na.fs.fed.us/ ; Hunde et al 2002; BOSTID 1983; Latifah , 2004;
5 . Eucalyptus deglupta
a) Name of Botany . Deglupta Blume Eucalyptus , Eucalyptus multiflora A. Rich . ex A. Gray non Poir . Eucalyptus naudiniana F. Muell . Eucalyptus schlechteri Diels .
b ) Family . Deglupta Eucalyptus belongs to the family Myrtaceae ( guava - jambuan )
c ) Common name . ( English ) : deglupta , Mindanao , gum ( Philippines ) : amamanit , bagras , banikag , Dinglás ( Indonesia ) : sugar , hose , leda ( Pidgin English ) : kamarere
d ) description of Botany ( Botanical Features ) . E.deglupta tree can reach a height of 60 m - 75 m , bentung straight trunk and rounded with high boles reach 50-70 % of the total tree height , with a diameter reaching more than 240 cm . Have smooth bark , warannya combination of yellow , brown and keunguanan , but usually green if the outer peel .
e ) Distribution of Natural . E.deglupta natural spread in Indonesia , Papua New Guinea and Philiphina . E.deglupta require a lot of sunlight , where the original is found growing along the Sunga . This species is also found in areas that had open due to human activities or natural disasters , such as the logged- exposed volcanic eruptions , and shifting cultivation . E. deglupta generally forming pure stands , or in association with other species . However in some places E.deglupta with Octomeles sumatrana , as an invasive species in secondary forests . E.deglupta is the only member of the genus Eucalyptus that can adapt well to the lower montane rain forest . This species can not grow well , in dry areas , but were able to grow well in areas with high annual rainfall is above 1800 mm / year . Although like areas with high rainfall , this species does not like waterlogged areas , and very sensitive to fire disturbance . Tropical areas with high rainfall , is a good location to develop E.deglupta on a wide scale .
The disease is a condition in which an organism abnormalities ( abnormalities ) in terms of physiology or phenotype . The presence of disease in a plant can be seen from the symptoms shown by the part - part of the plant , such as leaf blotches , stem rot , discolored roots , etc. . While in plant pathology ( Phytopatologi ) , the cause of the disease may be the cause of diseases classified biotic ( mikroroganisme such as fungi , bacteria , viruses , nematodes , mycoplasma , etc. ) while the cause of the disease is caused by abiotic things outside of living things , such as nutrient poisoning , lack of light , hit by lightning , flooded , affected by pollution , drought , etc. .
The emergence of the disease in a plant is influenced by three factors that are often called the Triangle Disease ( Disease Triangle ) , where the three factors making up the triangle together and influence each other in the cause of a disease . Triangle was described as shown below :
Disease triangle that describes the occurrence of a disease when there are three elements that interact together
Triangles above indicate that the occurrence of a disease is the result of the three constituent elements of the triangle together in a state that supports the occurrence of an abnormality giving rise to the disease . For example , pathogens ( disease-causing ) when perfectly 'll be ready to plant , but if the environment does not allow the disease will not emerge , or conversely if the plant has a high immunity against pathogen attack even though the environmental conditions allow the disease still does not appear . In disease control strategies , these elements will be the center of attention .
Bacterial Wilt Disease
One cause disease ( pathogens ) that is widely known in addition to fungi , while bacterial wilt is a symptom ( symptoms ) in addition to other symptoms of disease are commonly displayed for example plants rot ( rot ) , spotting ( spots ) , changed color ( discoloration ) , weathered ( decay ) , and so on . Wilt ( Wilt ) caused by pathogenic bacteria commonly known as Bacterial Wilt disease . The disease is caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterial attack types ( synonymous with Pseudomonas solanacearum or Bukholderia solanacearum or Bacillus solanacearum ) .
R. solanacearum is known to be the cause of disease in the + / - 650 species of plants , especially the eggplant - terongan ( family Solanaceae ) such as tobacco , eggplant , potatoes , tomatoes , peppers , pumpkin - Labuan , etc. . In addition to attacking the family Solanaceae , other groups also attack plants such as banana , ginger , turmeric , orchid , patchouli , beans , onions , papaya , strawberry , Geranium (a type of ornamental plants are well known in America and Europe ) , Anthurium ( ornamental plants ) Eucalyptus , teak ( Tectona grandis ) , Pinus spp . , Jatropha curcas ( Jatropha ) , manioc ( cassava ) , Araucaria , Casuarina , Azadirachta indica ( neem ) , and so on . In addition to attacking agricultural crops and forestry , this disease also attacks the weeds ( especially the Solanaceae - eggplant - terongan - , Oxalis spp . , Amaranthus spp. - spinach - bayaman , Phyllanthus spp. - meniran , Ageratum spp . , Bidens pilosa , Sida spinosa , Physalis minima , Xanthium spp . , etc. )
In biology , these bacteria Protobacteria put into groups , are gram-negative ( gram is a term laboratory bacteria classify bacteria based on a chemical reaction to pengindentifikasiaan ) , rod-shaped , multiply by dividing , are aerobic ( requiring oxygen to synthesize food ) , and very small size ( length x width = 0.5 - 0.7 lm x 1.5 - 2.0 lm ) - ( lm micro meter read where 1 lm = 1/1.000.000 m ) . These bacteria can only be seen with an electron microscope having a magnification capability up to + / - 1,000,000 times .
The general properties of these bacteria are :
- Spread on a very broad area , ranging from tropical to sub- tropical and wide range of heights ranging from 0-3000 m above sea level and with a range of 45 ° south latitude to 45 ° north latitude
- Commonly found in soil and can spread through seed plants
- Can be asymptomatic latent ( symptomless ) means that attacked plants showed no symptoms of disease ( no symptoms abnormality )
- Can live dormant ( sleeping ) in the ground until > 6 months in the tropics , whereas in sub-tropical regions can last up to 6 years and can live up to a depth of 1 m from ground level
- It grows optimally at temperatures 28oC and 15oC survive temperatures - 35oC , and at 40-100 % humidity . Less thrive at temperatures > 35oC or < - 5oC .
- Enjoys environmental pH 5.0 - 5.5
- Can a normal life in the water , organic matter , and soil
- Do not form spores as a breeding tool , but some type of bacteria is known to be spread through the air ( water borne ) .
- Can move through a lot of things such as insects , animals , humans , farm tools , transfer of plant material such as cutting , seedling , grafting , etc. .
- There will be a major problem in soils poor drainage or high clay content
- Not toxic to animals or humans
Because the area is so wide spread of these bacteria , as well as the number of host and typenya diverse , Ralstonia species is often mentioned with " species complex" .
To identify the type of bacteria by the host group in the world known 5 races and is based on the ability to oxidize carbohydrates ( disakkarida ) and alcohol are known biovar 5 ( French , E. B et al (1995 ) , namely ( see below ) :
R.solanacearum attack symptoms in the field ( (Source : Acelino Alfenas C. et al ( 2006) )
Reports of attacks on crops and Eucalyptus
In addition to attacking agricultural crops , these bacteria also attack forest trees . In the reported attack agricultural crops potato, tomato , tobacco , pumpkins , peppers , squash, manioc ( cassava ) , bananas , ginger , turmeric , orchids , anthurium , etc . Losses that have been reported are as follows :
- In 1918 had attacked the potato and tobacco plants in Mauritius and in 1973 attacked hisas types of anthurium plants .
- In 1930 attacking legumes in the central and southern parts of China and damaging to the level of 10-30 % of the existing cropping
- In 1949 attacking eggplant in Philiphina and damaging to the level of 80 % , then struck again in 1969 to a level of 10 % and in 1998 attacked again until the 40 % level of damage
- During the years 2002-2003 attack potato crops around the world and resulted in 85 % loss or damage equivalent to USD 950 million / year (U.S. $ 8.5 trillion ) - ( at exchange rate of 1 U.S. $ = Rp.9.000 ) .
- In Indonesia, the disease has been reported to damage the peanut crop in the entire production centers in Java , Sumatra , Sulawesi and Bali , and the destruction rate of 65 % and at the same time attacking the ginger plant and damaging to the level of 85 % throughout the ginger production centers .
- In Taiwan can damage tomato plants up to 55 % , to 100 % in India , Thailand and the damage to 90 % in Colombia losses due to this disease on tomato plants is estimated at U.S. $ 5.8 million / year ( approximately Rp . 52 billion / year )
- In America 2003 Geranium plant damage (a type of ornamental plants ) and harmful approximately U.S. $ 10 million / year and indirect losses of U.S. $ 888 billion / year .
Bacterial wilt disease due to R. solanacearum can attack Eucalyptus clones in various phases , ranging from phase stoolplants ( motherplants ) , cutting or seeds to the existing plants in the field . Reportedly , recently one of the companies in Bahia - Brazil , have been damaged during the month of April-September , 2005 and singe + / - 19 million plants in the Nursery with various stages ranging stoolplants until ready for planting seedlings and direct losses estimated at U.S. $ 2.7 million ( or approximately Rp . 24.3 billion - at the rate of 1 U.S. $ = Rp.9.000 ) .
Reported also from Austalia , that in 1996 nearly 90 % of Eucalyptus plants aged < 6 months have been attacked and losses estimated at + / - U.S. $ 20.5 million or + / - Rp . 184.5 billion . While in Vietnam reported 30-50 % damage Eucalyptus plants with a loss of nearly U.S. $ 13 million . ( at the exchange rate of 1 U.S. $ = Rp.9.000 ) .
From various other countries such as Taiwan , China , Venezuela , South Africa , Uganda , Chile , Peru , Australia , Uruguay , India , etc. is also reported that the disease attacks the forest trees and causing huge losses .
In China , in 1982 reportedly attacked Eucalyptus 30-40 % to the level of damage in the provinces of Guangdong , Hainan , Guangxi , and in Leizhou Eucalyptus plants reported damage to 70 % .
In Indonesia also been reported that in 1993 attacked one of the plants of Eucalyptus plantations in North Sumatra , but the level of attacks and losses were never officially reported .
Symptoms of an attack on Eucalyptus Plant
As mentioned above , Bacterial wilt disease can attack multiple phase Eucalyptus plants ranging from phase stoolplants ( motherplants ) , cutting , seedling ready for planting until the plants are already in the field . Various types of Eucalyptus reportedly attacked this disease as E.camaldulensis , E.urophylla , E.grandis , E. Citrodora , E.saligna , and E. propigua including some hybrid of Eucalyptus as E.urophylla x E.grandis . Symptoms in Eucalyptus Nursery looks like this :
Various Bacterial Wilt Disease Attack Symptoms in Eucalyptus spp . (Source : Acelino Alfenas C. et al ( 2006) )
Network conditions and Eucalyptus seedlings were Esophageal R.solanacearum (Source : Acelino Alfenas C. et al ( 2006) )
To ascertain whether the wilt caused by Ralstonia wilt , then we can cut the tissue ago , then put it in clear water / clear . When attacked by Ralstonia then not long after being soaked in water will come out clear viscous liquid / yellowish called ooze . This is a collection of bacterial ooze potential to spread to other plants . To that after trying this method is expected to ooze containing the soaking water should be sterilized with alcohol or provide additional bactericidal . Also usually the part of the plant has been attacked by weight , when cut and left exposed to the air will issue ooze too .
Very much including tomatoes , potatoes , beans , eggplant , pumpkin - Labuan , tobacco , eucalyptus , teak , Patchouli , various types of legumes , etc.
Asia , Australia , America
Various types of Banana ( Musa spp . )
Caribbean , Brazil
Types of potatoes and various types of Solanaceae ( eggplant - terongan ) , Geranium , etc.
The whole world except the United States and Canada
Potential Source of Infection Bacterial Wilt
Because these bacteria have properties that can survive in a variety of materials in nature , including water , soil , organic matter , weeds , and other materials , then some of the potential of the source of infection is R.solanacaerum :
1 . Water sources such as ponds , rivers , dams , water reservoirs , etc.
2 . Latent plants ( plants that become host bacteria but do not show symptoms of wilting ) around the planting area such as various types of weeds , crops , etc.
3 . Land that has been infected , is the area or areas where the bacterium Ralstonia had lived previously . For example, the former land where no crops are attacked .
4 . Tools and materials contaminated stoolplant example , if contaminated, the cuttings ( cutting ) berpontensi generated will also be a source of infection and subsequent cuttings ( seedlings ready for planting ) that have been infected will be transmitted to the ground .
Spread of Bacterial wilt disease
The transfer of bacteria from one place to another or from one crop to another is possible by :
1 . The use of agricultural equipment such as tractors were moving earth; pruning tools such as scissors , cutter , knife , etc. that are used repeatedly on different plants ; hoes , rakes , shovels , etc.
2 . The use of natural growing medium for example the top soil , the root of the nail , peat , etc.
3 . Use of water for watering of water sources that have been infected or contaminated drainage and irrigation
4 . Movement of plant material from one place to another eg transplanting activities ( weaning ) , grafting , graft , grafting , etc. .
5 . Displacement due to natural causes , such as the presence of wind , the flow of water , insects , other animals , etc.
6 . Displacement due to the tools and materials used by humans eg boat shoes , gloves , tools, transportation , etc. .
Potential spreader is described by the following picture :
Modes of Transmission bacteria Ralstonia
Transmission of this bacterium begins to damage the plant tissue with masukknya these bacteria into plant tissue . The entry of bacteria into the plant tissue can be through :
- Absence of wounds on the plant tissue ( eg, roots , branches , leaves , etc. ) for various reasons ( eg, insect bites , animal bites , as a result of human action , for example pruning , root pruning , etc. )
- The existence of a natural hole in plants , for example through the stomata ( leaf mouth ) , or hydatoda ( natural hole at the edge of the leaf ) or nectartoda ( natural orifice flower section ) .
The possibility of infection of plants by bacteria described as shown below :
CONTROL METHOD bacterial wilt disease
Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is very difficult to control . Until now there has been found the most effective method in controlling this disease . The difficulty is due to bacterial control :
- Its distribution is very wide both in the tropics and sub- tropics
- Have biovar and racially diverse so that its properties are also very diverse
- Its that can grow on a variety of environmental conditions with temperature and humidity range is large
- Can survive ( dormant ) in the soil to a depth of 1 m in the tropics
- Very quickly adapt to changes in the surrounding environment
- Having very many host plants ( estimated to + / - 650 plant species can maketh as host ) so that the crop rotation techniques ( crop rotation ) is also often unsuccessful .
In agriculture , many techniques have been tried to control this disease , but in general it can be said that there has been no successful technique successfully .
However , the agricultural sector has implemented a variety of integrated control ( Integrated Pest Management - IPM ) .
The core of an integrated control is to maintain the condition of plants and the environment to the development of the pathogen ( Ralstonia ) may be on tap minimum. It is closely related with the disease triangle described above and the things that can be carried out in accordance with the triangle described below :
Integrated control should include three elements in segiti
The combination of various methods of control can be done by way of prevention ( prevention ) :
1 . Use of Varieties / Clones resistant
The use of varieties / clones is one of the many control techniques applied in agricultural crops . Various types of varieties and clones generated from breeding (breeding ) and biotechnology have resulted in the type of potato, tomato , tobacco , etc. .
In the world of forestry , produce varieties and clones that are resistant to bacterial wilt disease had been sought by many companies . Various attempts at breeding and biotechnology activities carried out for the selection of genetic material that is resistant to the disease . Nevertheless , the success of the invention clone / resistant varieties often do not succeed because of the changing nature of the bacterium Ralstonia faster .
2 . Sterilization ( Free Inoculum Bacteria )
a. Carry out the sterilization of plant material used , for example, by the application of strict quarantine system in order seeds or seedlings that will be planted free of bacteria and other diseases .
b . Carry out sterilization tool - a tool that will be used , for example pruning shears , hoes , shovels , tractors , plows , etc.
c . Carry out the sterilization of growing media in nurseries , for example with the use of desinfectan , heating ( heating / solarization ) , fumigation , etc.
d . Carry out the sterilization of green house or nursery vegetative areas with tight , eg cleaning floors and roof greenhouse / nursery regularly, cleaning and sterilization of drainage channels , etc. .
e . Carry out the sterilization of water sprinkling with the manufacture of water treatment with desinfectan .
Media sterilization methods :
Several methods of sterilization media ( soil , roots nails , sand , peat , cocopeat , etc. ) can be done in various ways or methods below :
- Heating ( stem pasteurization ) medium to a temperature of 180oF - 200oF ( 83 - 93oC ) for > 15 minutes . This heating can be done by passing steam into the stack of media in the media or by heating in a metal container that lit the fire underneath . Determined by heating the bacteria Ralstonia 've not been able to live , as well as other pathogens such as fungi Cylindrocladium , Phytopthora , Phytium and nematodes ( Cacang ) . In addition there are methods of solarization medium heat with the help of sunlight . Media stocked on the floors are dry ( eg cement floor ) , then covered with black plastic sheeting ( dark colored ) and let it run until the temperature reaches 70oC . Indeed, this method is highly dependent on sunlight and normally takes + / - 1-2 weeks for the entire medium heat affected 70oC for 1 hour . During the solarization process needs to be done so that the media stirring the heat spread throughout the surface of the media .
- Fumigation with Methyl bromide gas ( CH3Br ) , although this requires specific prerequisites and have been banned in many countries because sufficient gas emissions harmful to the environment . In Indonesia, the use of this gas is usually allowed to a limited scale , for example in the Plant Quarantine Centre or in the laboratory .
- Sterilization of media with dolomite [ Ca Mg ( CO3 ) 2 ] by curing for 1-2 weeks . Media that will be used are mixed evenly with Dolomite then stacked and covered with a tarp so that the temperature inside the pile can be increased and protected from the rain . Curing with dolomite in addition to increasing the pH and increase nutrient media ( especially Ca and Mg ) , can also suppress the growth of weed seeds and the growth of fungal spores as potential pathogens ( disease-causing ) . Dolomite dose that can be used are 2-3 kg/m3 nail root or other media . With the increase in pH approaching 6.5 - 7 will be very useful in suppressing the growth of bacteria Ralstonia .
- Sterilization by spraying bactericidal media contact for such Kasumin U.S. 20 , Kasumin 5/75 WP , Bactocyn 150 AL , Starner 20 WP , 20 WP or Agrept Stamycin 20 WP . Bactericidal concentrations can be diluted with 1-2 grams ( ml ) / liter of water ( or can be seen recommended dosage on the label of each bactericide ) , then the solution can be poured into the media that has been inserted into the container ( single tube ) . It can also be used pesticides containing copper oxychloride ( copper oxychlorida ) - CuCl2.3Cu ( OH ) 2 - as Cupravit OB 21 , Kibox 85 WP , 50 WP and Nefos Probox 45 WP . Doses of pesticides can be seen on each label .
- Fumigation with soil fumigants such as the type of active ingredient dazomet and is now sold under the trade name Basamid G. The dose is adjusted based on the use of labels . This material is a granular form ( granules ) that can be mixed into the media , then left ( brooded ) for a period of 10-15 days with a temperature of 30 - 35oC , then the media is ready for use . During curing should be done stirring 1 time a week so that the effect of the fumigant mixed evenly throughout the media in ripened . Duration is dependent upon the actual curing temperature m
If the 2 previous posts already submitted an introduction and about the role of breeding ( tree improvement) in the preservation of timber ... the current into the topic Soil and Stand Management ....
B. SOIL MANAGEMENT
The problem of land is a complex problem . But clearly , in addition to the genetic material , soil ( soil) is a very valuable capital for plantation companies . Thank Indonesian companies , because they were given concessions by the state , when in Brazil or other Latin American , most companies have their own land . Indeed, there is ease given their country for the company for the purchasing of land and land for timber certification .
Because it is so important lands ( land , soil) , in an attempt to HTI , there is no other way , must be treated , managed , handled well . Useless to have good material , seed or clone , but the soil is so arid land and the super poor .... What is the key to manage the land in timber ?
The key for sustainable forest land management is :
- Top Soil
- Organic Material
Soil is the top layer of soil that is closer to the soil surface , contains many microorganisms , contains the most nutrients , and has the highest content of air compared to other soil layers . As thick as 20 cm from the surface , which is the "gold" that should be maintained and cared for . Also likely to save the top soil organic material ( litter ) is a matter for the resumption of the nutrient cycle in forest areas . If this is disrupted , the most devastating was the loss of natural resources can be a long -term preservation of capital .
Keeping top soil in the timber is not difficult , as long as aspects of " conservation " top soilnya run . It's easy , do not let erosion , do not condense ( compacted ) , do not peel , do not burn , and do not let weeds gnawing . Will attenuate topsoil erosion , wash away nutrients and organic matter , and the remaining edges are sub- soil layer is depleted of nutrients and be prepared to get skinny slender plants .
Keeping top soil is also easy by reducing soil compaction ( compacted ) , mainly due to heavy equipment ( most things are at high risk ) . We have to run a very minimal harvesting system damage or compacting the soil . The use of " bearing " as a heavy equipment mat is the only way . But if the condition of the harvested crop already emaciated , to make a mattress also was not enough , finally entered the heavy equipment passing in the land , and the circle of damage is increasing. Wood harvested little , and broken land increases , so that the next rotation crop productivity will also increasingly ugly , and heavy equipment to log in again ... and continuously until the compacted soil with high levels .... Ultimately, the company closed its land because gold is not there anymore .
Management of soil ( soil ) in HTI is actually very simple , and sometimes do not realize the impact . With delicious sometimes rapidly or we open a forest area ( either harvested plantations or secondary forests that he had broken ) , but not as soon as possible replanting . Once the forest is opened , then the micro- ecosystem is changing drastically . With direct sunlight hitting the surface of the soil , increase soil temperature , stimulating the growth of weed seeds , evaporative nutrient elements formed in the gas . Direct rainwater hits the ground , directly on the soil , water flows quickly , and the potential loss of nutrients , organic matter and " treasure " on the higher ground . To that end , should , after a forest is opened ( cut ) immediately do the planting , weed control done immediately , so that the land back quickly covered , so that more nutrients utilized by plants , so that slowed the flow of rain water both surface runoff and flow into the ground ( infiltration ) .
This problem is still not entirely , micro- forest ecosystem change opened ( either by harvest or land preparation ) , automatically changing patterns of organisms living in the top soil layer . Changes in temperature , light , water , will automatically affect the working patterns of decomposers in the soil surface . The rate of decomposition will be accelerated , but if allowed to linger , the cycle decomposition of organic matter into nutrients will be halted due to the organic material discharged , either because the rate of decomposition by organisms as well as the open nature .
Silviculture activities are " not " hostile to the ground as above , in the end will make the land waste away , and we are prepared to receive " punishment " of nature , the land will be even thinner .......... The only remaining area in the form Acres ........... but it does not exist ..... or if we did we would harvest ACRES ? I fikir not , we should harvest or harvest WOOD MONEY sustainable and increased from one rotation to the next rotation ........
Trivial , such as the timing of planting after harvest , heavy equipment traffic control , weed control , an aspect that should not just theory or training materials ......... been implemented with a simple but practice in the field ......... The land may still be GOLD .