In planning the development of forestry plants with clonal forestry systems , there are several requirements that the key to success , namely :
1 . clonal material
Clonal material used must meet the necessary requirements in accordance with the designation of the plant timber . For example, for pulp and paper industry , the terms of wood properties ( properties of wood ) it must meet the density , fiber length , fiber number , color , lignin content , cellulose content , and other requirements coinciding with the pulp -making process . Clones developed must also be easily propagated vegetatively , because it's useless to get a good clone but hard to be bred in bulk . Clones are common terms are :
- Fast growth and high
- Easily bred in bulk
- The response to fertilization
- Optimal resistance to pests and diseases in important
- Having a wood properties in accordance with industry needs
2 . Clon x Site interaction ( clone x Tread )
Clones are usually very strong interaction with the environment where they grow , because after interkasinya clones were selected based environment , or often referred to as P = G + E , where the interaction of genotype ( clone ) with the Environment ( Environment ) will produce Phenotype ( Performance , Production , Phenotype ) . Very rare to find clones that were able to interact well with all the environmental conditions that affect plant growth . For example clones in sub-tropical regions is very difficult to grow well in the tropics , or superior clones in areas with elevation > 1500 m above sea level will be difficult to adapt to areas with elevation of 100-200 m above sea level , for example . Or clones were selected in regions with high nutrient content , may not be optimal in regions with low nutrient content . Clonal forestry planning should involve site planning (site ) and existing cropping environment and an integral part of operational planning with other series such as human resources , facilities , budget , tools and materials , and so on . Without a suitable interaction ( as appropriate) between clones x Tread on it, then the performance ( production ) clones could slip away from the estimate .
3 . Propagation clones ( clonal propagation or clonal Deployment )
However to develop clonal Forestry will be in touch with how to produce vegetative seedlings of selected clones . Useless we have selected clones well , already qualified and qualified industry - terms clones , but it is very difficult to breed ( propagation ) . The main task of Tree Improvement in time after completion of the selection of superior genetic material is how to multiply ( deployment ) the genetic material . Without reproduction , the genetic material is selected and it is just a superior record or display in the field . There should be a standard of success clonal deployment as a viable genetic material is said to be a clone to production scale . Propagation of these clones would involve rooting ability ( the ability to produce root ) and shoot ability ( the ability to produce trubusan ) . Seed trees ( plus trees ) or clones that have been selected in a clonal test should be tested for the ability to shoot and root yield ( shoots and roots ) , both with micro propagation method ( such as micro propagation tissue culture - tissue culture ) or macro propagation ( cutting or cuttings ) . Merencanaan clonal forestry useless if the ability to produce clonal shoot and root were selected was not operationally feasible mass . This will be related to the operational capability to produce seed for planting in the field needs .
Of course, very much needed infrastructure in running clonal Forestry . In addition to the availability of genetic material ( clones ) superior , of course, will not be separated from the supporting infrastructure to develop the clone instance Tissue culture laboratory ; Seedling Vegetative that requires a variety of terms , especially terms of humidity and temperature settings as well as the availability of sterilization of instruments and materials ; Gardens Crop ( orchard hedges ) that are likely to require a means of Green House ( greenhouse ) , means watering , fertilizing , plant care , and so on . In addition to generating a good interaction with the environment ( Tread ) it, then the supporting infrastructure such as soil maps , the data and change the nutrient content of the soil , pest and disease progression data , the data changes in the weather or rainfall , wind , temperature and humidity will is needed in planning clonal Forestry .
Eucalyptus clonal nursery in one of the companies in Brazil (Source : http://www.actforclimatejustice.org/ )
4 . Economic Aspects of Forestry clonal
The results of clonal forestry forestry course is optimal crop productivity . With high product uniformity , then one value that can be achieved by clonal forestry is of high economic value . It has been very generally known that the stands of Eucalyptus clone in the Brazilian state average can reach 45 m3/ha/tahun or the harvest period of 5-6 years will produce an average of 225-270 m3/ha , and if we compare it stands is not clones derived from the average could reach 25m3/ha/tahun or 125-150 m3/ha at harvest 5-6 years , then the product is different clonal forestry approximately 100 % compared with the non- clonal . But should we not struck by the production figures at the time of the harvest . The results of clonal forestry could be higher due to investment or capital invested is also higher than that of non - clonal . What is the ratio of cost ( cost ) of production to be really well calculated and analyzed before deciding operational clonal forestry . Clonal forestry requires a more complex infrastructure , human resources are more disciplined and higher competence , and course management Silviculture more detailed and rigorous . We are not going to result in the production of clones of Eucalyptus as high MAI 45m3/ha/tahun if we Silviculture engineering discipline level is still the same with the creation of the non- clonal stands ( seed ) and knowledge about the properties of clones that we handle will be very specific to each clone so human resources competence requires more optimal .
Clonal forestry did show fantastic results in the various countries that have developed it as Eucalyptus clonal forestry in Brazil , Chile , Argentina , Uruguay , South Africa , Australia , or clonal Pinus spp in Brazil , United States , Chile , Argentina , South Africa , Australia , New Zealand , etc. . But the success of clonal forestry in these countries must be supported by means of parasana very complete and of course the seriousness of resources and clonal forestry management run by the rules of science and other silvicultur .
Harvesting Eucalyptus clonal (Source : thesecondgreenrevolution.blogspot.com )
As one professor of breeding ,
" Clonal forestry can indeed produce a fantastic production , but for the fantastic results it also takes energy that is fantastic "