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Bacterial Wilt Disease In Eucalyptus spp. eg leaf patches, stem rot, discolored roots,

05.42 - By Wunfi

The disease is a condition in which an organism abnormalities ( abnormalities ) in terms of physiology or phenotype . The presence of disease in a plant can be seen from the symptoms shown by the part - part of the plant , such as leaf blotches , stem rot , discolored roots , etc. . While in plant pathology ( Phytopatologi ) , the cause of the disease may be the cause of diseases classified biotic ( mikroroganisme such as fungi , bacteria , viruses , nematodes , mycoplasma , etc. ) while the cause of the disease is caused by abiotic things outside of living things , such as nutrient poisoning , lack of light , hit by lightning , flooded , affected by pollution , drought , etc. .

The emergence of the disease in a plant is influenced by three factors that are often called the Triangle Disease ( Disease Triangle ) , where the three factors making up the triangle together and influence each other in the cause of a disease . Triangle was described as shown below :


Disease triangle that describes the occurrence of a disease when there are three elements that interact together

Triangles above indicate that the occurrence of a disease is the result of the three constituent elements of the triangle together in a state that supports the occurrence of an abnormality giving rise to the disease . For example , pathogens ( disease-causing ) when perfectly 'll be ready to plant , but if the environment does not allow the disease will not emerge , or conversely if the plant has a high immunity against pathogen attack even though the environmental conditions allow the disease still does not appear . In disease control strategies , these elements will be the center of attention .

Bacterial Wilt Disease

One cause disease ( pathogens ) that is widely known in addition to fungi , while bacterial wilt is a symptom ( symptoms ) in addition to other symptoms of disease are commonly displayed for example plants rot ( rot ) , spotting ( spots ) , changed color ( discoloration ) , weathered ( decay ) , and so on . Wilt ( Wilt ) caused by pathogenic bacteria commonly known as Bacterial Wilt disease . The disease is caused by Ralstonia solanacearum bacterial attack types ( synonymous with Pseudomonas solanacearum or Bukholderia solanacearum or Bacillus solanacearum ) .

R. solanacearum is known to be the cause of disease in the + / - 650 species of plants , especially the eggplant - terongan ( family Solanaceae ) such as tobacco , eggplant , potatoes , tomatoes , peppers , pumpkin - Labuan , etc. . In addition to attacking the family Solanaceae , other groups also attack plants such as banana , ginger , turmeric , orchid , patchouli , beans , onions , papaya , strawberry , Geranium (a type of ornamental plants are well known in America and Europe ) , Anthurium ( ornamental plants ) Eucalyptus , teak ( Tectona grandis ) , Pinus spp . , Jatropha curcas ( Jatropha ) , manioc ( cassava ) , Araucaria , Casuarina , Azadirachta indica ( neem ) , and so on . In addition to attacking agricultural crops and forestry , this disease also attacks the weeds ( especially the Solanaceae - eggplant - terongan - , Oxalis spp . , Amaranthus spp. - spinach - bayaman , Phyllanthus spp. - meniran , Ageratum spp . , Bidens pilosa , Sida spinosa , Physalis minima , Xanthium spp . , etc. )

In biology , these bacteria Protobacteria put into groups , are gram-negative ( gram is a term laboratory bacteria classify bacteria based on a chemical reaction to pengindentifikasiaan ) , rod-shaped , multiply by dividing , are aerobic ( requiring oxygen to synthesize food ) , and very small size ( length x width = 0.5 - 0.7 lm x 1.5 - 2.0 lm ) - ( lm micro meter read where 1 lm = 1/1.000.000 m ) . These bacteria can only be seen with an electron microscope having a magnification capability up to + / - 1,000,000 times .

The general properties of these bacteria are :
- Spread on a very broad area , ranging from tropical to sub- tropical and wide range of heights ranging from 0-3000 m above sea level and with a range of 45 ° south latitude to 45 ° north latitude
- Commonly found in soil and can spread through seed plants
- Can be asymptomatic latent ( symptomless ) means that attacked plants showed no symptoms of disease ( no symptoms abnormality )
- Can live dormant ( sleeping ) in the ground until > 6 months in the tropics , whereas in sub-tropical regions can last up to 6 years and can live up to a depth of 1 m from ground level
- It grows optimally at temperatures 28oC and 15oC survive temperatures - 35oC , and at 40-100 % humidity . Less thrive at temperatures > 35oC or < - 5oC .
- Enjoys environmental pH 5.0 - 5.5
- Can a normal life in the water , organic matter , and soil
- Do not form spores as a breeding tool , but some type of bacteria is known to be spread through the air ( water borne ) .
- Can move through a lot of things such as insects , animals , humans , farm tools , transfer of plant material such as cutting , seedling , grafting , etc. .
- There will be a major problem in soils poor drainage or high clay content
- Not toxic to animals or humans

Because the area is so wide spread of these bacteria , as well as the number of host and typenya diverse , Ralstonia species is often mentioned with " species complex" .

To identify the type of bacteria by the host group in the world known 5 races and is based on the ability to oxidize carbohydrates ( disakkarida ) and alcohol are known biovar 5 ( French , E. B et al (1995 ) , namely ( see below ) :




R.solanacearum attack symptoms in the field ( (Source : Acelino Alfenas C. et al ( 2006) )
Reports of attacks on crops and Eucalyptus

In addition to attacking agricultural crops , these bacteria also attack forest trees . In the reported attack agricultural crops potato, tomato , tobacco , pumpkins , peppers , squash, manioc ( cassava ) , bananas , ginger , turmeric , orchids , anthurium , etc . Losses that have been reported are as follows :
- In 1918 had attacked the potato and tobacco plants in Mauritius and in 1973 attacked hisas types of anthurium plants .
- In 1930 attacking legumes in the central and southern parts of China and damaging to the level of 10-30 % of the existing cropping
- In 1949 attacking eggplant in Philiphina and damaging to the level of 80 % , then struck again in 1969 to a level of 10 % and in 1998 attacked again until the 40 % level of damage
- During the years 2002-2003 attack potato crops around the world and resulted in 85 % loss or damage equivalent to USD 950 million / year (U.S. $ 8.5 trillion ) - ( at exchange rate of 1 U.S. $ = Rp.9.000 ) .
- In Indonesia, the disease has been reported to damage the peanut crop in the entire production centers in Java , Sumatra , Sulawesi and Bali , and the destruction rate of 65 % and at the same time attacking the ginger plant and damaging to the level of 85 % throughout the ginger production centers .
- In Taiwan can damage tomato plants up to 55 % , to 100 % in India , Thailand and the damage to 90 % in Colombia losses due to this disease on tomato plants is estimated at U.S. $ 5.8 million / year ( approximately Rp . 52 billion / year )
- In America 2003 Geranium plant damage (a type of ornamental plants ) and harmful approximately U.S. $ 10 million / year and indirect losses of U.S. $ 888 billion / year .

Bacterial wilt disease due to R. solanacearum can attack Eucalyptus clones in various phases , ranging from phase stoolplants ( motherplants ) , cutting or seeds to the existing plants in the field . Reportedly , recently one of the companies in Bahia - Brazil , have been damaged during the month of April-September , 2005 and singe + / - 19 million plants in the Nursery with various stages ranging stoolplants until ready for planting seedlings and direct losses estimated at U.S. $ 2.7 million ( or approximately Rp . 24.3 billion - at the rate of 1 U.S. $ = Rp.9.000 ) .

Reported also from Austalia , that in 1996 nearly 90 % of Eucalyptus plants aged < 6 months have been attacked and losses estimated at + / - U.S. $ 20.5 million or + / - Rp . 184.5 billion . While in Vietnam reported 30-50 % damage Eucalyptus plants with a loss of nearly U.S. $ 13 million . ( at the exchange rate of 1 U.S. $ = Rp.9.000 ) .

From various other countries such as Taiwan , China , Venezuela , South Africa , Uganda , Chile , Peru , Australia , Uruguay , India , etc. is also reported that the disease attacks the forest trees and causing huge losses .

In China , in 1982 reportedly attacked Eucalyptus 30-40 % to the level of damage in the provinces of Guangdong , Hainan , Guangxi , and in Leizhou Eucalyptus plants reported damage to 70 % .

In Indonesia also been reported that in 1993 attacked one of the plants of Eucalyptus plantations in North Sumatra , but the level of attacks and losses were never officially reported .

Symptoms of an attack on Eucalyptus Plant

As mentioned above , Bacterial wilt disease can attack multiple phase Eucalyptus plants ranging from phase stoolplants ( motherplants ) , cutting , seedling ready for planting until the plants are already in the field . Various types of Eucalyptus reportedly attacked this disease as E.camaldulensis , E.urophylla , E.grandis , E. Citrodora , E.saligna , and E. propigua including some hybrid of Eucalyptus as E.urophylla x E.grandis . Symptoms in Eucalyptus Nursery looks like this :


Various Bacterial Wilt Disease Attack Symptoms in Eucalyptus spp . (Source : Acelino Alfenas C. et al ( 2006) )

Network conditions and Eucalyptus seedlings were Esophageal R.solanacearum (Source : Acelino Alfenas C. et al ( 2006) )

To ascertain whether the wilt caused by Ralstonia wilt , then we can cut the tissue ago , then put it in clear water / clear . When attacked by Ralstonia then not long after being soaked in water will come out clear viscous liquid / yellowish called ooze . This is a collection of bacterial ooze potential to spread to other plants . To that after trying this method is expected to ooze containing the soaking water should be sterilized with alcohol or provide additional bactericidal . Also usually the part of the plant has been attacked by weight , when cut and left exposed to the air will issue ooze too .


Race
Host plants
distribution
biovar
1
Very much including tomatoes , potatoes , beans , eggplant , pumpkin - Labuan , tobacco , eucalyptus , teak , Patchouli , various types of legumes , etc.
Asia , Australia , America
3.4
1
2
Various types of Banana ( Musa spp . )
Caribbean , Brazil
Philippines
1
3
Types of potatoes and various types of Solanaceae ( eggplant - terongan ) , Geranium , etc.
The whole world except the United States and Canada
2
4
ginger
Asia
3.4
5
Mulberry
China
5

Potential Source of Infection Bacterial Wilt

Because these bacteria have properties that can survive in a variety of materials in nature , including water , soil , organic matter , weeds , and other materials , then some of the potential of the source of infection is R.solanacaerum :
1 . Water sources such as ponds , rivers , dams , water reservoirs , etc.
2 . Latent plants ( plants that become host bacteria but do not show symptoms of wilting ) around the planting area such as various types of weeds , crops , etc.
3 . Land that has been infected , is the area or areas where the bacterium Ralstonia had lived previously . For example, the former land where no crops are attacked .
4 . Tools and materials contaminated stoolplant example , if contaminated, the cuttings ( cutting ) berpontensi generated will also be a source of infection and subsequent cuttings ( seedlings ready for planting ) that have been infected will be transmitted to the ground .

Spread of Bacterial wilt disease

The transfer of bacteria from one place to another or from one crop to another is possible by :
1 . The use of agricultural equipment such as tractors were moving earth; pruning tools such as scissors , cutter , knife , etc. that are used repeatedly on different plants ; hoes , rakes , shovels , etc.
2 . The use of natural growing medium for example the top soil , the root of the nail , peat , etc.
3 . Use of water for watering of water sources that have been infected or contaminated drainage and irrigation
4 . Movement of plant material from one place to another eg transplanting activities ( weaning ) , grafting , graft , grafting , etc. .
5 . Displacement due to natural causes , such as the presence of wind , the flow of water , insects , other animals , etc.
6 . Displacement due to the tools and materials used by humans eg boat shoes , gloves , tools, transportation , etc. .

Potential spreader is described by the following picture :


Modes of Transmission bacteria Ralstonia

Transmission of this bacterium begins to damage the plant tissue with masukknya these bacteria into plant tissue . The entry of bacteria into the plant tissue can be through :
- Absence of wounds on the plant tissue ( eg, roots , branches , leaves , etc. ) for various reasons ( eg, insect bites , animal bites , as a result of human action , for example pruning , root pruning , etc. )
- The existence of a natural hole in plants , for example through the stomata ( leaf mouth ) , or hydatoda ( natural hole at the edge of the leaf ) or nectartoda ( natural orifice flower section ) .

The possibility of infection of plants by bacteria described as shown below :




CONTROL METHOD bacterial wilt disease

Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is very difficult to control . Until now there has been found the most effective method in controlling this disease . The difficulty is due to bacterial control :
- Its distribution is very wide both in the tropics and sub- tropics
- Have biovar and racially diverse so that its properties are also very diverse
- Its that can grow on a variety of environmental conditions with temperature and humidity range is large
- Can survive ( dormant ) in the soil to a depth of 1 m in the tropics
- Very quickly adapt to changes in the surrounding environment
- Having very many host plants ( estimated to + / - 650 plant species can maketh as host ) so that the crop rotation techniques ( crop rotation ) is also often unsuccessful .

In agriculture , many techniques have been tried to control this disease , but in general it can be said that there has been no successful technique successfully .

However , the agricultural sector has implemented a variety of integrated control ( Integrated Pest Management - IPM ) .

The core of an integrated control is to maintain the condition of plants and the environment to the development of the pathogen ( Ralstonia ) may be on tap minimum. It is closely related with the disease triangle described above and the things that can be carried out in accordance with the triangle described below :


Integrated control should include three elements in segiti

The combination of various methods of control can be done by way of prevention ( prevention ) :

1 . Use of Varieties / Clones resistant

The use of varieties / clones is one of the many control techniques applied in agricultural crops . Various types of varieties and clones generated from breeding (breeding ) and biotechnology have resulted in the type of potato, tomato , tobacco , etc. .

In the world of forestry , produce varieties and clones that are resistant to bacterial wilt disease had been sought by many companies . Various attempts at breeding and biotechnology activities carried out for the selection of genetic material that is resistant to the disease . Nevertheless , the success of the invention clone / resistant varieties often do not succeed because of the changing nature of the bacterium Ralstonia faster .


2 . Sterilization ( Free Inoculum Bacteria )

a. Carry out the sterilization of plant material used , for example, by the application of strict quarantine system in order seeds or seedlings that will be planted free of bacteria and other diseases .
b . Carry out sterilization tool - a tool that will be used , for example pruning shears , hoes , shovels , tractors , plows , etc.
c . Carry out the sterilization of growing media in nurseries , for example with the use of desinfectan , heating ( heating / solarization ) , fumigation , etc.
d . Carry out the sterilization of green house or nursery vegetative areas with tight , eg cleaning floors and roof greenhouse / nursery regularly, cleaning and sterilization of drainage channels , etc. .
e . Carry out the sterilization of water sprinkling with the manufacture of water treatment with desinfectan .

Media sterilization methods :

Several methods of sterilization media ( soil , roots nails , sand , peat , cocopeat , etc. ) can be done in various ways or methods below :
- Heating ( stem pasteurization ) medium to a temperature of 180oF - 200oF ( 83 - 93oC ) for > 15 minutes . This heating can be done by passing steam into the stack of media in the media or by heating in a metal container that lit the fire underneath . Determined by heating the bacteria Ralstonia 've not been able to live , as well as other pathogens such as fungi Cylindrocladium , Phytopthora , Phytium and nematodes ( Cacang ) . In addition there are methods of solarization medium heat with the help of sunlight . Media stocked on the floors are dry ( eg cement floor ) , then covered with black plastic sheeting ( dark colored ) and let it run until the temperature reaches 70oC . Indeed, this method is highly dependent on sunlight and normally takes + / - 1-2 weeks for the entire medium heat affected 70oC for 1 hour . During the solarization process needs to be done so that the media stirring the heat spread throughout the surface of the media .
- Fumigation with Methyl bromide gas ( CH3Br ) , although this requires specific prerequisites and have been banned in many countries because sufficient gas emissions harmful to the environment . In Indonesia, the use of this gas is usually allowed to a limited scale , for example in the Plant Quarantine Centre or in the laboratory .
- Sterilization of media with dolomite [ Ca Mg ( CO3 ) 2 ] by curing for 1-2 weeks . Media that will be used are mixed evenly with Dolomite then stacked and covered with a tarp so that the temperature inside the pile can be increased and protected from the rain . Curing with dolomite in addition to increasing the pH and increase nutrient media ( especially Ca and Mg ) , can also suppress the growth of weed seeds and the growth of fungal spores as potential pathogens ( disease-causing ) . Dolomite dose that can be used are 2-3 kg/m3 nail root or other media . With the increase in pH approaching 6.5 - 7 will be very useful in suppressing the growth of bacteria Ralstonia .
- Sterilization by spraying bactericidal media contact for such Kasumin U.S. 20 , Kasumin 5/75 WP , Bactocyn 150 AL , Starner 20 WP , 20 WP or Agrept Stamycin 20 WP . Bactericidal concentrations can be diluted with 1-2 grams ( ml ) / liter of water ( or can be seen recommended dosage on the label of each bactericide ) , then the solution can be poured into the media that has been inserted into the container ( single tube ) . It can also be used pesticides containing copper oxychloride ( copper oxychlorida ) - CuCl2.3Cu ( OH ) 2 - as Cupravit OB 21 , Kibox 85 WP , 50 WP and Nefos Probox 45 WP . Doses of pesticides can be seen on each label .
- Fumigation with soil fumigants such as the type of active ingredient dazomet and is now sold under the trade name Basamid G. The dose is adjusted based on the use of labels . This material is a granular form ( granules ) that can be mixed into the media , then left ( brooded ) for a period of 10-15 days with a temperature of 30 - 35oC , then the media is ready for use . During curing should be done stirring 1 time a week so that the effect of the fumigant mixed evenly throughout the media in ripened . Duration is dependent upon the actual curing temperature m

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