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Bacterial Wilt Disease In Eucalyptus spp. eg leaf patches, stem rot, discolored roots, 2 Water Sterilization Methods in Nursery

05.44 - By Wunfi

Water Sterilization Methods in Nursery

In addition to media , water for Nursery also should be sterilized as Ralstonia solanacearum , also some other types of pathogens , are very easily transmitted through water flow .

Several methods of sterilization of water in the Nursery to be free of pathogens are as follows :
o Use of Chlorine as Sodium Hypochloride ( NaOCl ) or Calcium Hyprochloride ( CaOCl2 ) or bleach ( bleach ) which is often used in the household ( chlorine or Bayclin ) are very commonly used for disinfecting water . The trick is to mix NaOCl / CaOCl2 with a certain dose . Typically publicly traded bleach containing 3-6 % NaOCl equivalent to 30000-60000 ppm . For use in Nursery can be used doses 300-500 ppm , so for 1 liter of water given chlorine or Bayclin 0.3 - 0.5 ml . To make it easier to use 3-5 liters of water 10 ml of chlorine or Bayclin . Toss well and let the water and bleach are mixed evenly at least 30 minutes . ( doses used can also follow the recommendations on the label )
o In addition to the use of disinfectant , water for watering should also be kept clean and quality water that meets the standards for Nursery . The use of water purification materials ( coagulants ) such as Alum ( Al2 ( SO4 ) 3.18H2O ) or called by the name of PAC ( Poly Aluminum Chloride ) .
o Use of Irradiation Technology Ultra violet ( UV ) . This is a technology with the use of UV radiation to kill microorganisms . This technology is still expensive because it uses equipment and a trained operator specifications .

Sterilization methods work tool

Nursery sterilization work must be carried out to avoid the transmission of bacteria . Especially on the tool used for multiple plants at the same time as pruning shears in the green house .

Sterilization of tools that can be implemented adapted to the tool -making material as shown in the table below :


No.
Materials / Equipment
Sterilization techniques
How to sterilization
1
Metal / metal ( such as scissors , knives , hoes , shovels , rakes , etc. )
Desinfectan like Alcohol 70 % and bactericidal contact
· Wash and dip in solution desinfectan tool work for at least 10 seconds
· Each cutting plant cuttings in different stool scissors should be dipped into 70 % alcohol
2
Plastic / rubber soft ( eg gloves , aprons / apron , boat shoes , etc. ) and Wood
Desinfectan such as carbolic acid , Bayclin , chlorine , contact bactericide
· Wash and dip in solution desinfectan tool work for at least 10 seconds
· For boat shoe , make a sterilizing bath containing desinfectan at each entrance Stoolplants house , house and rooted cutting house . Prior to the entry into the work area must pass through sterilization tub

3
Plastic / rubber hard as a single tube , tray , bucket , box cuttings , seed box , etc. )
- Mechanical heating ( boiled )
- Desinfectan such as carbolic acid , chlorine , Bayclin , contact pesticides
· Put it in hot water ( > 70 ° C ) for 1 minute
· Wash and soak into the desinfectan for 5 minutes
4
Cuttings / cutting / seed ( water soaking the cuttings before planting )
Bactericidal example Agrept 20 WP , Kasumin 5/75 WP , etc. with appropriate concentrations of the pesticide label
Use bactericidal solution used for soaking water before planting rooted cuttings in the house . Water soaking seeds can also use bactericide .
5
Conveyance ( thrust rickshaw , car , other means of transport )
Desinfectan such as chlorine or Baylin ( Hypoclorit ) with the appropriate concentration of label
Flush entire conveyance or car ( vehicle ) which will be used in the area of ​​Nursery ( Nursery ) with hypoclorit solution , especially the tire and the bottom of the vehicle that are often exposed to / in contact with the ground


3 . Routine monitoring and eradication

      The spread of bacteria can take place very quickly and unexpectedly , so the monitoring of the health of the seeds is recommended. Monitoring is useful to limit the spread of bacteria , because if at the time of monitoring found seedlings are attacked then we can do the isolation ( separation of seeds affected) and then eradication ( destruction ) of the infected seeds by burning .

4 . Sign in to Nursery Access Regulation

Eucalyptus nursery that uses technology and cutting stoolplants ( cuttings ) are very prone to bacterial wilt disease because of the work carried out in the manufacturing plant wounding cuttings . Tissue wound infections become one of the main roads by the bacterium Ralstonia . It is inevitable . Which must be controlled is that all employees , tools , materials we use in the manufacturing process must be sterile seeds from seed this bacterium . Access control must be carried in and out of people, vehicles , materials and tools to and from the Nursery . Areas that must be strictly controlled is Stoolplant areas , House and Rooted Cutting Area . Doorway area to be determined and at each entrance should be available sterilization tub

5 . Environmental sanitation

     Nursery became basic sanitation Disease control is most important. Avoid puddles , weeds and rubbish that was in the Nursery . Ralstonia very fond of damp and flooded areas and should be minimized . Eliminate weeds allows us to reduce the possibility of host plants . Some weed species that is becoming host Ralstonia Babadotan ( Ageratum spp . ) , Solanaceae ( eggplant forest ) , meniran ( Pylanthus spp . ) , Spinach - bayaman ( Amaranthus spp ) , and so on .

6 . Balanced Fertilization and Intensive Care

Balanced fertilization be one basis for integrated disease control . With the balanced fertilization plant health will be higher . Implementation of SOP fertilizer well and controlled the core application in the field . Maintenance should be carried out such as thinning of seedlings , watering , weed control , etc. , have been written in the SOP and we live and perform applying strict supervision .
7 . Control of chemical
   
Until this moment control with chemicals ( bactericidal ) for controlling this disease is still not demonstrated optimal results . A wide variety of bactericidal tried diaplikasaikan the affected plants were not able to properly control the bacterial attack . The use of bactericidal still limited to use for soaking or soaking seeds that will be planted cuttings . For Eucalyptus cuttings , can be used bactericide solution ( eg Agrept 20 WP or Kasumin ) as water immersion before cuttings were planted in a single tube . It is also to keep the transmission when there shoot that already contains bacteria and when cut and soaked in water will issue cuttings ooze and can infect others .

8 . Management Control Systems with the help of stool - plants and Tracking Clone / Cutting

The presence of bacterial wilt Ralstonia attack is very difficult to predict and detect quickly . The bacteria could have been entered into the plant tissue , but the plants have not shown symptoms ( we refer to the term symptomless ) or symptoms of latent ( hidden ) . Because of this condition , then action can be done is the making and implementation of management systems and tracking stoolplant cutting down to the ground .

Stoolplant management systems in question are :
- Each sand bed was coded ( numbering ) identification , such as sand beds 1 , 2 , 3 .. etc.
- Each sand bed historicalnya known ( eg planting date , source stool - Tissue culture plants are plants or topping results , developments survival , development of shoot production , maintenance types , etc. )
- Each sand beds have special tools that work ( primarily shoot pruning shears )

By managing stoolplant with the above system , the resulting expected to shoot up cutting production and ready for planting seeds ( BST ) it would be in tracking . If we find symptoms of bacterial wilt on the level of cutting or BST , then we can trace up to the sand bed . If the investigation results of the sand beds show positive results Ralstonia contamination , then we can immediately perform specific control measures only in the sand bed ( eg eradication , we are only going to do on the sand bed is found to be contaminated )

BST tracking system to be very useful to explore the field in case of attack bacterial wilt in the field . It is also to verify whether contamination occurs when bacteria in the stool - phase plants , in the cutting phase / Nursery , or indeed an attack occurs after planting in the field .
   
9 . Selection BST strictly

The application is ready for planting seed selection ( BST ) which will be planted into the ground should be run. Prudence in packing , transportation and maintenance BST before planting a priority in order to avoid injury to the plants . Selection BST cultivated with strict regard to health element seedlings . The seeds that have disabilities ( eg due to other pathogens attack ) is not sent to the cultivated field.

10 . Control of the biological pesticide materials / organic

Many studies conducted in the field of agriculture to find Ralstonia control techniques with biological materials and organic materials , but often have difficulty at the time of application to the field . Research conducted generally successfully implemented in the laboratory or in the greenhouse , but when applied to the field often give as good results as experiments in the laboratory or greenhouse .

Some extracts of plants that successfully suppress the development of bacteria Ralstonia is noni extract , extract gambier , clove extract and turmeric extract

In addition to using natural pesticides ( organic ) - biopesticide - many also tried using microorganisms that are antagonistic to Ralstonia but do not disturb the plants . Even widely studied types of microorganisms that also provide positive benefits to the plant and there is this group called PGPR ( Plant Growth - Promoting Rhizobacteria ) . Some PGPR that have been tested and show good results is the group Actinomycetes , Azospirillum , and Bacillus . Several types of microorganisms are able to try and suppress the development of Ralstonia and has been tested in various crops are shown in Table below :


No.
plant
group
name
The level of antagonism
information
1
ginger
mushrooms
Aspergillus nidulans
good
Sources : Bustaman H , ( 2006)
mushrooms
Gliocladium virens
very good
mushrooms
Pennicilium digitatum
very good
mushrooms
Rhizopus oryzae
moderate
mushrooms
Trichoderma harzianum
very good
mushrooms
T. koningii
moderate
mushrooms
T.viride
very good
bacterium
Achromobacter sp
very good
bacterium
Bacillus
moderate
bacterium
Pseduomonas flourescen
very good
bacterium
Pseudomonas patoa
moderate
2
tomatoes
-
Effective microorganisms ( EM )
moderate
Source: Lwin M and Ranamukharachchi
3
peanuts
bacterium
Pseudomonas flourescen
moderate
Source: Yusnadi
4
bananas
Microorganisms and plant extracts
Biopesticides Persada + papaya leaf extract , betel leaves, galangal , sambiroto , and garlic ( biopesticides PERSADA is Bali's Udayana Faperta products )
Moderate and Good
Sources : I B K Suastika and A.A.N. B The Mansion , ( 2005)
5
Tomatoes and potatoes
bacterium
Bacillus
good
Sources : Heru A Djatmiko et al ( 2007)
Streptomyces
good
6
tomatoes
bacterium
Bacillus cereus
good
anonymous
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
good
P.pulida
good
7
tobacco
mushrooms
Tricoderma spp
very Good
Source: In Giacomami et al ( 2005)
Streptomyces sp .
very Good

8
tomatoes
mushrooms
Actinomycetes group
good
Source: Moura , 1996
9
pineapple
mushrooms
Azospirillum brasilense
good
anonymous


bacterium
Bacillus sphaericus
good

10
eggplant
bacterium
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
good
N.A.S.Messiha et al ( 2006 )
11
Eucalyptus urophylla
bacterium
Pseudomonas fluorescens and P.putida
-
L.X Ran et al ( 2005)


Very often the use of PGPR or biological pesticides having problems in the application in the field . Differences in environmental conditions where these pesticides diaplikasikannya with the condition found and developed into biological control microorganisms is very influential on the effectiveness of this biopesticide . Some experts say the use of biopesticides in controlling Ralstonia often constrained due to :
- The diversity of Ralstonia so biovar type or biological control agents are also very diverse
- The diversity of strains of microorganisms as biological control agents , and very specific to each region / tread
- Cost , time and technology laboratory complex to mengektraksi microorganisms into biological control agents
- Applications in the field often do not show the results because of climate change / weather can not be controlled as in a laboratory or in a greenhouse (green house )

Today many products as biopestida diclaim outstanding and traded in the society . For example, products Ornamental Plants Research Center that sell products under the name Bio PF ( containing bacterial control agents causing bacterial wilt disease ) , Bio GL , Gliocompost and Prima BAPF . Also there is a product on the claim as a biological control is capable of controlling diseases caused by fungi and bacteria such as brand GLIOCLADIUM . However , testing of the effectiveness of the above material against Ralstonia control still needs to be studied and researched further .

CONTROL bacterial wilt in the crop EUCALYPTUS

Control of bacterial wilt disease in plants in the field is actually in line with the concept of integrated control (integrated pest management ) because no one metodepun can properly control the disease if the control techniques implemented separately ( partial ) . Prevention ( Preventive ) is the core of the control when plants are attacked because it is very difficult to cure .

Businesses - businesses that control can be implemented are :

1 . Maintenance Planting Seeds Ready ( BST ) before planting

Maintenance BST at planting time to prevent damage or injury in the absence of seeds that have been selected from the Nursery ( nursery ) . At the time of the transport process from the seeds and vans to be undertaken in order to avoid injury . Action BST watering and shade before planting should be carried out so that the health and optimum freshness until BST seedlings planted . Transportation seeds using a single tube and the basket is one way to reduce the damage / injury seedlings .

At the time of the release of the single tube BST , should be sought as much as possible to allow the seedling was not injured .

2 . Intensive weed control ( Environmental Sanitation )

As described above several types of weeds usually will also be host plants Ralstonia and usually does not indicate the absence of wilting symptoms ( symtopless ) . Treatment of pre- plant spraying before planting should be implemented properly so that all potential weed hosts can be destroyed .

At the time of execution of manual weeding must be considered in order not to make cuts in major crop plants due to injury

3 . Routine monitoring

Monitoring the health of stands in each plot / compartemen plant is needed to determine whether there are plants that are attacked by the disease . Routine monitoring can be implemented with a sampling system or involve plantation assessment team ( PAT ) or plant inventory team . If there is a special team who worked on it will be better monitoring .

In the calculation of monitoring the number of plants to disease or other pests . By monitoring the data can be obtained with potential spread of pests and diseases that can be implemented immediately efforts to reduce its spread .

The intensity of sampling for routine monitoring ( normal state ) was conducted using sampling with sampling intensity of 2 % and observation plots with an area of 200 m2 , or 0.02 ha circle ( radius 7.98 m ) . If the routine monitoring of the disease is known to have serious then sampling intensity can be increased or census .

4 . Eliminate potential waterlog ( inundation )

From various studies in agriculture and forestry crops , waterlog ( inundation ) will cause a variety of negative effects on the plant , including the development of pathogenic microorganisms .

Waterlog also a negative effect on plant health , as it will create anaerobic conditions in the root zone , the emergence of toxic gases due to a chemical reaction with the water in the water ( eg onset of H2S , ammonia , etc. ) , increasing the rate of transpiration of plants that deplete energy plants ( out of balance between photosynthesis , transpiration and respiration ) , and inhibition of the formation of new cells .

Waterlog clearly will reduce plant health and make self-defense that plants will be lower , while the increased development around the plant pathogens .

5 . Chemical treatment ( bactericide ) on Plants attacked

           Bactericidal applications on the plant bacterial wilt disease has been tested in many different areas , but so far as Agrept bactericidal effectiveness or Kasumin still debated .

6 . Eradication of infected plants

Eradication of affected plants is actually an effective measure to prevent the spread of bacterial wilt disease . Plants that have been attacked in pieces , then the remaining pieces covered or smeared with tar , bactericidal or alcohol so that ooze coming out does not spread to other places .

We must be careful in doing this that the eradication of bacteria remaining in the plant tissue or in the soil around infected plants do not move or spread to plants or other areas .

The things that must be considered in eradication measures are :
- The remaining parts of the affected plants should be burned
- If any part of the plant is cut ( eg base of the stem ) , then the cut should be covered with tar , or alcohol or bactericidal so bacteria does not get out
- Where possible demolition roots ( the young plants ) , then the demolition of the former land sprinkled with dolomite or roots should be watered with a bactericide .
- Root hole dismantling used sprinkled Dolomite or bactericidal solution , then left open so that sunlight can enter and suppress the growth of bacteria . In addition to Dolomite also proved that Phosporous Acid ( H3PO3 ) can suppress the development of R. This solution is sprinkled with the soil that had been infected (soil dressing )
- Working tools such as hoes , shears , machetes , work shoes , gloves and other tools used in the eradication must be cleaned and sterilized with desinfectan ( alcohol or carbolic acid ) or bactericidal so there could potentially be a spreader of bacteria .

Eradication should be carried out in the summer because the sun helps the process of sterilization of bacteria in the soil . Problems occur when the eradication carried out during the rainy season is difficult to implement in addition cut tissue burning , potentially spreading rain also dug soil plants eradicated and this can be a problem at other plants .

How eradication :
- Prepare special tools and materials used for the eradication ie scissors , machetes , saws , hoes , shovels , cotton , plastic boat shoes , rubber gloves , desinfectan ( 70 % alcohol or carbolic acid ) , bactericidal , Dolomite , and fuel oils such as diesel or kerosene
- Define tree eradicated
- Wear rubber gloves and boots boat
- Pluck the strings skillfully / Ruin all the leaves of the trees to be eradicated and collect at the bottom of the tree
- Scissors or prune branches that eradicated . Shears or saws that are used must be sterilized with rubbing alcohol 70 % or carbolic acid ( with cotton )
- If the tree is still small , cut the stem from the base of the stem and make small pieces ( chopped ) and the remaining pieces in the base of the stem should be smeared with alcohol or carbolic acid to avoid being scattered, ooze , then wrap in a plastic bag containing a moist cotton swab that has been dipped into bactericidal solution .
- After that collect all the leaves , stems , twigs , chopped stems , weeds , litter , twigs around the tree and cotton are used for greasing , so the radius of 1.5 m from the base of the stem to be eradicated is clean and become firebreaks .
- Perform combustion by spraying diesel or kerosene . The entire rest of the leaves , twigs and weeds are collected and burned to the ground should be ash .
- If possible , after the demolition done by digging rods and collect all the roots of the tree and re- do the burning
- Holes must be dug sprinkled or sprayed with a solution of Dolomite bactericidal dose of 1-2 ml / liter of water as much as 1-2 liters / tree in eradication (soil dressing )

7 . balanced fertilization

The concept of balanced fertilization as well as the concept of balanced fertilization in the Nursery . With balanced fertilization is expected the plant will have a level of health that is sufficient to defend against pathogen attack . Implementation of SOP well is one of the basic make healthy plants and have a good self- defense against pathogen attack .

There are several studies on agricultural crops indicates that CaO + urea fertilization can reduce the attack of bacterial wilt on tomato plants ( Michel , VV et al 1977) . While Yamakazi ( 2000 ) proved that the increase in Ca concentration in the soil is negatively correlated with the level of bacterial wilt on tomato attack , meaning that the higher the Ca content of bacterial wilt attacks will be smaller . ( source : http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article ) In the potato crop in Uganda demonstrated that fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus and complete with NPK fertilization results of bacterial wilt attacks are the lowest compared to single fertilization ( N or P alone alone or K only ) . ( source : http://www.bioline.org.br/request?cs01057 )

Research in the U.S. shows that the content of Ca , B and C no pride in the leaves of tomato plants that survived the attack bacterial wilt , and this is presumably because this nutrient is important in enhancing the defense capabilities of the plant bacterial wilt attack ( Gokhan H et al 2006 ) .

8 . Crop rotation and management of stands ( stand management)

           Crop rotation are widely applied in agricultural crops . This method was able to reduce losses due to bacterial wilt disease . Crop rotation in agricultural crops is very possible because age is generally short -cycle crops ( monthly ) so that the effectiveness of crop rotation is very high , but when we talk about forest plants Plants that an average of 1 cycle takes 5-8 years , the concept of crop rotation this should be an integrated work plan involving various aspects such as production aspects and economical aspects . Substitution of each cycle plant species will be a problem related to the technical implementation in conjunction with HTI and industrial elements into a timber which supplies raw materials .
         
            The selection of resistant clones will be associated with the breeding work ( tree improvement) and this should be related to aspects of the management of stands like setting blocks / plant compartment . It can be implemented :
- Conformity clone according to their interaction with the site should be maximized in order to plant health can be improved .
- Use multiclone highly obliged . The use of the clone will be at high risk if there is an attack or other disease bacterial wilt resistance , especially if the low clone . The pattern blocks / compartemen monoclonal compartment system needs to be set so that one clone plants at one compartemen not related to the same clone in different compartemen . This concept has been applied in various plantation companies who develop such a clone of Eucalyptus in Brazil , Argentina , South Africa , Venezuela , Chile and Colombia .

9 . Cutting Parts Plant is Wilting

Cutting the plant Eucalyptus bacterial wilt disease that is considered healthy section has been tried in various companies . Used pieces smeared with bactericide . The hope will grow healthy new shoots . This technique still needs to be studied further because there is no satisfactory results are reported .

CLOSING

Ralstonia spread in various places and have very many host plants . These bacteria would be a problem when attacking plants . But we also have to understand , that the presence of these bacteria should not discourage or stop the spirit of plantation development efforts with Eucalyptus plants . The main one is to determine the presence of bacteria , we must be vigilant and more aware that plantation development should be carried out carefully and follow existing standards .

Plants can be attacked or potential terserangnya greater if :
- There is a wound on the plant
- Bacteria have been carried over from seed or from seedlings ( stoolplants )
- Unsanitary plant conditions ( weak resistance ) , for example due to shallow planting hole , unbalanced fertilizer , weed free low, etc.
- The environment in which the bacteria grow in the field support the breed well ( eg poor sanitation , waterlog , etc. )

Losses incurred very large if not controlled immediately . The most effective control measure is an attempt PREVENTIVE ( prevention ) .

Most prevention efforts is the implementation of the SOP can be implemented well , both in the Nursery and in the field . With the adoption of SOP , routine monitoring , and environmental sanitation , we believe the level of bacterial attacks can be frightening to a minimum in press .


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