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GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF EUCALYPTUS spp. PLANT SPECIES AND BEING SUBJECT development DI timber

05.45 - By Wunfi

The genus Eucalyptus in the world consisting of over 700 species and 138 varieties , where the outside of the species and varieties that have been known to still be discovered species and new varieties belonging to the genus Eucalyptus ( Blakley , 1955 ; Johnston and Marryatt 1965; Penford and Willis , 1961 in Krugman and Whitesell ( ? ) ; Rockwood et al 2008, Flynn ( ? ) ; www.wikipedia.org , Heathcore , 2002 , White , 1993) . Species belonging to the genus Eucalyptus has the shape of a tree with a main trunk high , however some species in this genus there in the form of woody shrubs ( Jacobs , 1979 in Krugman and Whitesell , ? ) . The genus Eucalyptus generally grow naturally in Australia , but some species grow naturally in the Philippines , Papua New Guinea , and the island of Timor in Indonesia ( Hall et al in Krugman and Whitesell , 1963) . The genus Eucalyptus is one genus that is widely cultivated in the form of plantations in various parts of the world , the tree can be used as an ornament , a shade tree , soil conservation , carpentry and wood pulp or pulp ( Chippendale et al in Krugman and Whitesell ( ? ) ; Heathcore , 2002; http://www.anbg.gov.au ; Turnbull , 1999) . More details http://www.bracelpa.org/ say , Eucalyptus can be used for various purposes both for wood fiber for various paper industry , wood carpentry , furniture , poles , boards , plywood , food sources such as honey , particle board , essential oils , etc. .

According to Evans (1992 ) , Eucalyptus spp occupying 37.5 % of the total area of ​​forest plantations in the tropics in 1980 , while according to Ball (1993 ) , Brown ( 2000) , Flynn ( ? ) And Varmola and Carle (2002 ) , Eucalyptus as one hardwood timber species is important as a supplier of the world until 1995 there was an additional broad and extensive plantations of Eucalyptus plantations reached 17.7 % of the total area of ​​forest plantations in the world , or 9.9 million hectares of forest plantations in the world in the same area of ​​56.3 million hectares as shown in the chart below :


While the FAO (2006 , 2007) reported that the development of forest plantations in the world until the year 2005 has reached 181 million hectares and 10 countries with the largest forest area plants are China , India , USA , Russia , Japan , Sweden , Poland , Sudan , Brazil and Finland . While this type - the type that was developed as a staple crop consisted of 2 groups: hardwood and softwood . For groups of hardwoods dominated by Eucalyptus spp . Acacia spp . and Tectona grandis .

Meanwhile Rockwood et al ( 2008) reported , Eucalyptus has been developed into one of the important species in industrial plantations in almost 90 countries and has reached an area of ​​18 million hectares in both the tropical and sub- tropical regions in South America , Asia , Africa and Australia or in temperate regions such as North America , Europe , South America and South Australia and by Turnbull (1999 ) , the development of Eucalyptus spp . already begun in the 18th century with the introduction of Eucalyptus from Australia in continental Europe by Charles Louis L' Heritier de Brutelle , a French botanist . From then on , the development of Eucalyptus continues to spread to many countries . According to White (1993 ) , the development of Eucalyptus to India began in 1790 , while in Nepal in 1890 and Thailand in 1905 . Eucalyptus was introduced to Southeast Asia around 1770 by a botanist named Sir Joseph Banks on James Cook expedition ( http://www.wikipedia.org/ ) . Meanwhile, according Munishi (2007 ) , the development of commercial Eucalyptus has been started in 1860 in Victoria Australia especially for the development of pharmaceutical products .

According to Carle and Holmgren (2008 ) , when stratified by region , then until 2005 in the world there have been 13.8 million hectares of Eucalyptus and the region has an area of ​​Eucalyptus plantations widest ie 7.6 million hectares , followed by the South American region covering an area of ​​4.5 million hectares and the area Africa covering an area of ​​1.2 million hectares and the rest is in the Oceania region covering an area of ​​0.5 million hectares . It is estimated that by 2030 widespread Eucalyptus in Asia will reach 10.6 million hectares . Asia Pacific region will be important in producing wood Eucalyptus spp . through plantations ( Ball , 1993 )

According to Rockwood et al ( 2008) , in 2000 , India has an area of ​​Eucalyptus plant world , reaching 8 million hectares , followed by Brazil's state with an area of ​​3 million hectares with an average productivity of 45-60 m3/ha/tahun . FAO (2005 ) reported that the development of eucalyptus until 2005 nearly 13 million acres in major countries including Congo , Indonesia , China , Malaysia , Thailand , France , Portugal , New Zealand and the United States . Even China reportedly planted Eucalyptus state area + / - 3500-43000 ha / year and the development of forest plantations in China is expected to reach 325000-1 .100.000 20 Ha in recent years and is dominated by Eucalyptus species . While Barr and Cossalter (2004 ) says , the development of Eucalyptus species in China is dominated by species E.urophylla , E.teriticornis , and some hybrid like E.urophylla X E.grandis , E.gradis X E.urophylla and E.teriticornis X E . urophylla mainly in three provinces of Hainan , Guangdong and Guangxi and planting is estimated at 65,000 ha / year with an average of 10-20 m3/ha/tahun MAI depends on the location and level of forest plantation management . Minsheng ( 2003) says , the Chinese initially develop two types of Eucalyptus is E.citodora and E.exserta in 1960-1980 , but then since 1980 doing a variety of other Eucalyptus species research including creation of hybrid clones to find that according to the climate and land in China . Various species tested were E.grandis , E.urophylla , E.camaldulensis , E.wetarensis , E.pellita , E.dunii , E.globulus , E.simithii , E.cloeziana , E.maidenii , E.salina and E . benthamii . It is also mentioned in addition to test species and provenance , breeding activities are also conducted to find superior clones and clones that have been selected from potentials obtained between 40-50 m3/ha/tahun growth , although the growth in commercial Eucalyptus plantation in China has a wide range that is between 10-70 m3/ha/tahun while Lal ( 2003) mentions , Eucalyptus clone in India the average yield MAI 20-25m3/ha/tahun on a commercial scale , although some areas may result in MAI 50 m3/ha/tahun .

Most types of Eucalyptus hybrid developed at this time is the result of the first generation ( F1 ) and generally comes from Maidenaria section ( eg E.globulus and E.nitens ) , Exsertaria ( eg E.camaldulensis and E.teriticornis ) , and Transversaria ( which has been amended be Latoangulatae , Broker in Payn , 2008) for example E.pellita , E.grandis and E.urophylla which is a sub- genus of Symphyomyrtus ( Griffin ; Eldridge in Payn , 2008) . Extensive planting of Eucalyptus sp . in the world in the form of plantations can be seen in the table below :


 Extent and age structure of Eucalyptus spp plantations . in different countries in 1995 ( FAO , 2006, in Rockwood et al 2008)


While according to James and Lungo (2005 ) , several other countries are also developing Eucalyptus spp . as the main crop plants in the forest as shown in the table below :


It was also reported by Rockwood et al (2008 ) that the Eucalyptus spp . which is widely grown in plantations also include hybrid types ( crosses ) and 4 species are often dikawinsilangkan to obtain " new genetic material - hybrid " is a type of E. grandis , E.urophylla , E.camaldulensis and E.globulus and nearly 80 % of the forest area Eucayptus plants in the world . Furthermore, according to James and Lungo (2005 ) and Varmola and Carle (2002 ) , that of the dozens of types developed as a staple crop in plantations in various countries then there are 16 species that dominate namely Pinus spp . , Havea brasilensis , Eucalyptus spp . , Populus spp . , Tectona grandis , Pinus radiata , Eucalyptus grandis , Pinus , Pinus taeda , Acacia nilotica , Eucalyptus globulus , Acacia auriculiformis , Eucalyptus saligna , P.elliotii , Pinus caribaea var . Hondurensis and Gmelina arborea . From the list of the known species such as Eucalyptus Eucalyptus spp developed . , E.grandis , E.globulus and E.saligna . Surely grouping into species Eucalyptus spp . based on the number of Eucalyptus species are developed and the possibility of inter- species hybrid . When grouped into two major groups , namely the type and Non - Conifer Conifer , then in the group of Non - Conifer species of Eucalyptus spp . being the most dominant .
According to Moore and Jopson (2008 ) , the use of eucalyptus as raw material for pulp and paper are very large in number along with a Demand for the manufacture of Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Bleach ( BEKP ) which reached 2 million tons in 1980 to 10 million tons in 2005 . Eucalyptus pulp has contributed 50 % to the production of pulp in the world and more than 20 % of chemical pulp production . However South America is still the eucalyptus pulp producer in the world with 57 % of the entire world production of eucalyptus pulp and Brazil occupy the highest position in the continent , after Asia came in second with 13 % and followed by 12 % while the rest of Africa Oceania and Europe are each respectively 10 % and 8 % .

Besides being used as a raw material pulp , Eucalyptus is also used for various purposes such as wood carpentry ( solid wood ) , veneer , wood fuel ( wood energy ) and other needs for various industries cosmetics , pharmaceuticals and other chemical industries .

Here is presented information about each Eucalyptus species commonly developed as a staple crop Plantation Forests ( Forest plantation ) in various parts of the world , especially in the tropics :

1 . Eucalyptus urophylla

a) Name of Botany . Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake. The name is derived from the Latin urophylla ura = tail and phyllon = leaf . This species has a similar leaf shape with Eucalyptus and Eucalyptus alba decaisneana , even some people are often mistaken for determining E. urophylla because the two species are similar to the above . Synonym : Eucalyptus alba Reinw . ex Blume Blume Eucalyptus decaisneana ( http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ )
b ) Family . Eucalyptus urophylla belongs to the family Myrtaceae ( guava - jambuan )
c ) Common name . Timor mountain gum ( English ) , ampupu and Palavao preto ( Indonesia) .
d ) description of Botany ( Botanical Features ) . At a place in the natural spread of natural forest , this species has a tree up to 24-45 m high and has a diameter of up to more than 1 m , with a straight trunk that reaches round and a half to two- thirds of the whole tree height . E.urophylla species has also been found to have up to 55 m high with a diameter of more than 2 m . In extreme environmental conditions of this species can be very different from the growth in a good neighborhood , in the extreme environments of this species can only be a woody shrub with a gnarled trunk and had only a few meters high . This species is also known to have characteristic bark that is affected by humidity and altitude growing , trees that grow below an altitude of 1000 m asl found on the island of Alor and Flores have relatively smooth skin . While living trees on the site with an altitude of 1000 m asl - 2000 m d.p.l. as found on the island of Timor with humid conditions , usually bark streaked shallow . In place of the original grow , this species is usually found associated with E. alba and suspected interbreeding occurred between the two , the result is an individual who has a character tree trunk between E.urophylla and E.alba . Begin the fertilization process is characterized by the release of a wreath -shaped flowers ( inflorence ) , is white . Flower season lasts from January to March , while the fruit is ripe and ready for harvest in June through September . Fertilization occurs periodically every year . ( Atlas of Indonesian Forest Tree Seed , Seed Technology Center , Ministry of Forestry )
e ) The spread of Growing Places . E.urophylla natural distribution of species in Indonesia. Its main distribution is on the island of Timor , Alor and Wetar , but some small population of this species is also found on the island of Flores , Adonara , Lomblen and Pantar . Location within the native range extends approximately 500 miles between the east longitude 122 ° to 127 ° east longitude , 7 ° 30' - 10 ° South latitude , altitude 90-2200 m asl The breadth of the range of altitude grown E.urophylla make it as a species of the genus Eucalyptus that has a height range where the greatest growth .
As Exotic plants developed in various countries such as Australia , Brazil , Cameroon , China , Congo , Côte d'Ivoire , French Guiana , Gabon , Madagascar , Malaysia , Papua New Guinea , Vietnam , etc. . ( http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ ; Payn , 2008; Vozzo ( ? ) )
f ) climate . E.urophylla scattered from start to hot climates , humid to sub - humid . Growing up in the area with an altitude of 400 m d.p.l. with an annual average temperature of 25 ° C to an altitude of 1900 m asl with an annual average temperature of 15 ° C. In many stands of Timor Island E.urophylla grow at altitudes above 1000 m asl where environmental conditions are often foggy , with rainfall 1300-2200 mm / year and dry season in the span of 3-4 months . However on the other islands in the native range , this species grows well in dry areas with rainfall 800-1500 mm with a dry season in the span of 5-8 months .
g ) physiographic and soil . E.urophylla generally found to be the dominant species in secondary forests in the mountains . Grown on mountain slopes and valleys . It grows well in deep soil , moist / wet , well drained soil with a pH that is near neutral formed from volcanic eruptions or changes in the shape of a rock .
h ) Type of vegetation . E.urophylla is the dominant species in secondary montane forest , in the natural spread of this species associated with Casuarina junghuhniana , Palaquium , Planchonella , Pygeum , and Podocarpus . In place grows with altitude below 1500 m asl distribution of stands E.urophylla forming a mosaic pattern and association with E.alba .

i ) Benefits / E.urophylla use . Wood of this species , especially from young plants are very good to use to firewood and charcoal . Besides this species also has a timber that can be used for woodworking and pulp as raw material has excellent properties of wood . Wood density in wet conditions shortly after harvesting from natural forest stands at around 960 kg/m3 . Nevertheless , the value of basic density E.urophylla has the lowest when compared with the species of the genus Eucalyptus others , in dry conditions the furnace is 540-570 kg/m3 ( Forestry Compendium , CAB International in http://www.agroforestry.org / )
Slightly stringy texture of the wood , but it is easy to do ( processed ) , and produces good timber processing to be used as flooring ( flooring ) , the board , and for wood construction . In Brazil wood of this species is excellent for use as a raw material pulp , because it has a very good wood properties . Relatively short fibers with a length of about 1.0 mm . The wood is very good as the raw material of pulp production , with the production of chemical systems are known to produce a pulp yield of 49.5 % . Wood from old trees , very nice to use as a material for construction .
j ) Silviculture types . Selection provenance is very important if we are going to cultivate E.urophylla . The results of several trials showed that the provenance provenance originating from altitudes above 1500 m asl grow , resulting in poor growth if planted in the lowlands , while the provenance that comes from growing with ketinggia 300-1100 m asl ( lowland ) , known to exhibit good growth if planted in low-lying areas . In addition provenance from lowland dry climate conditions , showed good growth when cultivated in the sub - humid climatic conditions humid , sub- tropical to tropical dry months 1-5 months , even in areas that experience winter . E.urophylla usually propagated using seeds / seedlings . The number of seeds per kg of seed reached 450,000 . The tree will begin flowering at the age of 2 years , and will begin to produce seeds that much at the age of 4 years . Nursery this species was initiated by sowing seeds , before sowing seed which was not given any treatment . After sowing , when the seedlings already have 2 pairs of leaves , the seedlings will be transferred to the container . As the media grows very well used medium crumb and well drained . Seedlings will be ready to be planted in the ground when it reaches a height of at least 25 cm , with a production period of 10-12 weeks . Additionally E.urophylla or hybrid of E.urophylla and E.grandis can be propagated by vegetative system through stem cuttings . Intensive silviculture with tillage and fertilizer application of N, P and K are essential to produce good plant growth . This species is very sensitive in competing with weeds , so at the age of 12 months until the plants should be in a weed -free condition .
E.urophylla has excellent growth if environmental conditions favor , with the environment and good silviculture stands of this species is able to have a 20-30 MAI m3/ha/tahun . Particular provenance can even generate up to 50 m3/ha/tahun MAI . E.urophylla with excellent growth are in South America such as Brazil , Africa such as Cameroon , Congo and Ivory Coast . Provenance derived from the lowlands as originating from the island of Flores , Alor and Timor usually have faster growth ( Vercoe and House 1992) .
k ) Pests and diseases . Cancer stem caused by Cryphonectria cubensis , fungus attacks the roots caused by Botryodiplodia sp . Fusarium and Helminthosporium sp sp . Are some diseases that are known to attack trees E.urophylla . In addition to seeds and small plants , termite and borer attack caused by Zeuzera Coffea . ( Hanum and van der Maesen , ed . 1997)

2 . Eucalyptus pellita

a) Name of Botany . Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell . First published in 1864 . The name is derived from pellitus = pellita Leather Cover , this term refers to the epidermal layer of leaves mepunyai .
b ) Common Name . In Australia, known as the red mahagony .
c ) Family . Myrtaceae ( guava - jambuan )
d ) description of Botany . E.pellita has a medium sized tree with a tall tree reaching 40 m and a diameter of up to 1 m . Has a straight trunk up to half of the height of the tree . Environmental conditions that do not fit this species is only able to reach 15-20 m height alone .
e ) Distribution of Natural . E.pellita spread in two main areas , namely , in the area of Muting Papua and Papua New Guinea as well as in Queensland . Located in the geographic location of 12 ° 45' - 18 ° 40 ' South Latitude ( For regional distribution in Australia ) and 7 ° 30' - 8 ° 35 ' South latitude ( for local distribution in Papua ) . Elevation grow from 0-800 m d.p.l. ( for distribution Australia ) and 30-90 m above sea level ( for distribution in Papua ) .
f ) climate . This species is grown either in a warm humid climate zone , with maximum temperatures in the dry season peak at 24 ° -34 ° C , and the average temperature in the wet months 4 ° C - 19 ° C. Average rainfall 1000-4000 mm / year .
g ) Physiographic and Soil Conditions . The Papuan population is scattered dispersed species ( scatter ) , growing location that is between the open area wet due to poor drainage and has a lush rainforest . The growth of elongated and narrow in the middle of these two locations , with a width of about 100 m course . Land where the growth is very varied ranging from shallow sandy soil mixed with rocks, shallow podzolic soil , clay soil too deep . In Papua this species is also found growing on red soils with clay and clay loam texture .
h ) Type of vegetation . E.pellita ( mahogany red / red mahagony ) , grows in open forest areas . Associated with E.teriticornis , E.tessellaris , E.intermedia , E.torelliana . In Papua E.pellita associated with E.brassiana , and is known to occur hybrid between the two. Also in Papua is also associated with Acacia aulacocarpa , A.mangium , Laphostemon suaveolans ( Paijman 1976) .
( Quoted Doran and Turnbull , 1997, Hardwood et al , 1997, http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/ )

3 . Eucalyptus camaldulensis
a) Name of Botany . Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh . The name is derived from the name of the town camaldulensis Camalduli , in Tuscany Italy , a place where the species is cultivated . This species was first published in 1832 .
b ) Family . Eucalyptus camaldulensis belongs to the family Myrtaceae ( guava - jambuan )
c ) Common name . River Red Gum , Red Gum , Murray red gum , gum River ( Australia )
d ) description of Botany ( Botanical Features ) . In Australia , the average E.camaldulensis tree reaches a height of 20 m , even reaching 50 m tall , with a DBH of 1-2 m or more . In an open area with a number of rare plants , the species of trees that form a short , fat and with tuberous stems , and canopy width . On the plantation , this species is able to grow up to 20 m tall stems , with a canopy that is not too wide . Her skin was smooth and white , gray , or brown .
e ) Distribution of Natural . E.camaldulensis is widespread in a variety of locations , like any other genus Eucalyptus . Especially in mainland Australia . Growing along streams and flooded low-lying temporary . But it is also found in highland areas . Scattered at 12 ° 30' geographical position 38 ° South latitude and altitude of 20-700 m above sea level grows
f ) climate . E.camaldulensis grow on a variety of climatic conditions , from warm to hot regions , sub - humid to semi - arid , with average temperatures in the dry reaches 24-40 ° C , and the average temperature in wet reaches 3 - 15 ° C. Average annual precipitation is 250-600 mm .
g ) physiographic and soil . E.camaldulensis grow on various soil types . Grow well in soil with a high clay texture ( heavy clay ) , also grows well on alluvial soil with sand texture .
h ) Type of vegetation . E.camaldulensis is a species that grows along the banks of the river , and in the arid regions of Australia . In areas closer to the plateau in Australia , the species is associated with E.coolabab , E.largiflorens , E.leucoxylon , E.microcarpa , and E.melliondra .
i ) Benefits / uses . Wood from E.camaldulensis excellent for use as firewood and charcoal , even in some countries , many E.camaldulensis wood used for the production of charcoal as a source of energy in the iron and steel mills . This species has a fairly good density and good trubusan capabilities making it suitable timber used for energy . Additionally timber from a good tree , can be used for furniture , because it has an attractive wood character . This species has a density of 500-700 kg/m3 wet wood to wood from young plants and 1130 kg/m3 for wood from old plants . Because densitynya high enough so the wood of this species is able to produce a high yield if it will be manufactured into charcoal or pulp ( Moura 1986) .
j ) Silviculture types . E.camaldulensis been developed by using seeds . Number of seeds per kg of seed to reach 700,000 . Good seed has a moisture content of 5-8 % and can be done at the place of storage to the storage temperature of 3-5 ° C , so that the seeds can be maintained with good viability for up to several years . No seed treatment before sowing . Seeds sown shaded place with optimum temperature 32 ° C. Seeds will begin to germinate on the seventh day after sowing . Once the sprouts can be weaned into the container . Shade is needed during the first week after weaning . Seedlings are transferred to the field when the high reached 30 cm with the production period of 12 weeks . In addition , this species can be developed vegetatively using stem cuttings . Weed control is very important , because this species is very sensitive to the weeds . Application of a complete fertilizer N , P and K greatly affect plant growth . This species is capable of producing up to 70 m3/ha/tahun wood at the age of 4 years if planted in a suitable place and good irrigation . But that does not conform to the conditions of growth could be less well with the results of 5-10 m3/ha/tahun ie on dry areas .
k ) Pests and diseases . In this species can be affected nursery fungi that cause damping - off ( fall seedling ) , stem rot and leaf spot . In addition termite attack also attacked seedlings in the nursery . If already a stand , this species can be attacked by various insects and fungi .
( Quoted from the Australian Trees and Shrub essay Doran and Turnbull 1997; http://www.proseanet.org/prohati2 ; BOSTID , 1983 ; Vozzo , ( ? ) ; http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream )


4 . Eucalyptus grandis
a) Name of Botany . Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden
b ) Family . Eucalyptus grandis belongs to the family Myrtaceae ( guava - jambuan )
c ) Common name . Rose Gum , Flooded Gum ( Australia )
d ) description of Botany ( Botanical Features ) . E.grandis ( rose gum ) are the main species grown in primary forests of Queensland and New Sout Wales Australia . The tree can reach a height of 43-55 m and a diameter reaching 122-183 cm . Form of the tree is very tall , straight and branch -free trunk reaches two- thirds of the height of the tree . His skin is thin and slightly peeling , skin fluted vertical smooth surfaces , marked with a white stripe stripe - silver , gray , terra cotta , or light green . At a height of up to 2 m from the base of the stem , bark looks cracked vertically .
e ) Distribution of Natural . E.grandis -borne naturally in the area berlembah or flat which is at a distance of about 160 km from the sea , located in Queensland and New South Wales to the geographical position of 26-30 ° south latitude and 13 ° south latitude .
f ) Climate : E.grandis grows naturally in areas with humid climates - sub- tropical with an average minimum temperature during the wet season is 2-10 ° C , and the average maximum temperature during the dry months is 29 ° C. Rainfall annual average 1020-1780 mm .
g ) physiographic regions and Soil : E.grandis grow on flat areas or on steep slopes in Queensland and New South Wales . This species grows well in places that are damp or wet , well drained , soil in , argillaceous alluvial soil derived from volcanic eruptions . This species can also be grown on soil with clay texture , as long as it has good drainage .
h ) Type of vegetation : E.grandis growing in an open area in its natural place , berasasosiasi E. intermedia , E. pilularis , E. microcorys , E. resinifera , and E. saligna , as well as Syncarpia glomulifera , Tristania conferta , and Casuarina torulos . E.grandis usually grow around a tropical rain forest , also found in the tropical rain forest .
i ) Benefits / uses . Wood from E.grandis have a bright pink color on the outside and red on the dusky wood middle. E.grandis wood is widely used for construction purposes , wooden utensils , plywood , panels , for the manufacture of boats and poles . Besides the wood of the species can be used as raw material pulp . Basic Density in dry conditions Katu E.grandis furnace about 450 kg/m3 .
j ) Silviculture types . E.grandis is very intolerant species , so it is to be stunted if there is shade . Fertilization and weed control is unbelievably important . Weed control after planting is done intensively , known to be very influential to improve plant growth . Application of herbicides for weed control should be performed until 24 months after planting .
k ) Pests and diseases . In the nursery seedlings can be attacked by Cylindrocladium scoparium E.grandis that causes stem rot on seedlings . E.grandis in plantation can undergo stem cancer caused by Cryphonectria cubensis . In a country of India also reported that this species in plantation age of 1 year can also attacked by termites .
( quoted from Meskimen and Francis in http://www.na.fs.fed.us/ ; Hunde et al 2002; BOSTID 1983; Latifah , 2004;
http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitsteram )

5 . Eucalyptus deglupta

a) Name of Botany . Deglupta Blume Eucalyptus , Eucalyptus multiflora A. Rich . ex A. Gray non Poir . Eucalyptus naudiniana F. Muell . Eucalyptus schlechteri Diels .
b ) Family . Deglupta Eucalyptus belongs to the family Myrtaceae ( guava - jambuan )
c ) Common name . ( English ) : deglupta , Mindanao , gum ( Philippines ) : amamanit , bagras , banikag , Dinglás ( Indonesia ) : sugar , hose , leda ( Pidgin English ) : kamarere
d ) description of Botany ( Botanical Features ) . E.deglupta tree can reach a height of 60 m - 75 m , bentung straight trunk and rounded with high boles reach 50-70 % of the total tree height , with a diameter reaching more than 240 cm . Have smooth bark , warannya combination of yellow , brown and keunguanan , but usually green if the outer peel .
e ) Distribution of Natural . E.deglupta natural spread in Indonesia , Papua New Guinea and Philiphina . E.deglupta require a lot of sunlight , where the original is found growing along the Sunga . This species is also found in areas that had open due to human activities or natural disasters , such as the logged- exposed volcanic eruptions , and shifting cultivation . E. deglupta generally forming pure stands , or in association with other species . However in some places E.deglupta with Octomeles sumatrana , as an invasive species in secondary forests . E.deglupta is the only member of the genus Eucalyptus that can adapt well to the lower montane rain forest . This species can not grow well , in dry areas , but were able to grow well in areas with high annual rainfall is above 1800 mm / year . Although like areas with high rainfall , this species does not like waterlogged areas , and very sensitive to fire disturbance . Tropical areas with high rainfall , is a good location to develop E.deglupta on a wide scale .

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