If the 2 previous posts already submitted an introduction and about the role of breeding ( tree improvement) in the preservation of timber ... the current into the topic Soil and Stand Management ....
B. SOIL MANAGEMENT
The problem of land is a complex problem . But clearly , in addition to the genetic material , soil ( soil) is a very valuable capital for plantation companies . Thank Indonesian companies , because they were given concessions by the state , when in Brazil or other Latin American , most companies have their own land . Indeed, there is ease given their country for the company for the purchasing of land and land for timber certification .
Because it is so important lands ( land , soil) , in an attempt to HTI , there is no other way , must be treated , managed , handled well . Useless to have good material , seed or clone , but the soil is so arid land and the super poor .... What is the key to manage the land in timber ?
The key for sustainable forest land management is :
- Top Soil
- Organic Material
Soil is the top layer of soil that is closer to the soil surface , contains many microorganisms , contains the most nutrients , and has the highest content of air compared to other soil layers . As thick as 20 cm from the surface , which is the "gold" that should be maintained and cared for . Also likely to save the top soil organic material ( litter ) is a matter for the resumption of the nutrient cycle in forest areas . If this is disrupted , the most devastating was the loss of natural resources can be a long -term preservation of capital .
Keeping top soil in the timber is not difficult , as long as aspects of " conservation " top soilnya run . It's easy , do not let erosion , do not condense ( compacted ) , do not peel , do not burn , and do not let weeds gnawing . Will attenuate topsoil erosion , wash away nutrients and organic matter , and the remaining edges are sub- soil layer is depleted of nutrients and be prepared to get skinny slender plants .
Keeping top soil is also easy by reducing soil compaction ( compacted ) , mainly due to heavy equipment ( most things are at high risk ) . We have to run a very minimal harvesting system damage or compacting the soil . The use of " bearing " as a heavy equipment mat is the only way . But if the condition of the harvested crop already emaciated , to make a mattress also was not enough , finally entered the heavy equipment passing in the land , and the circle of damage is increasing. Wood harvested little , and broken land increases , so that the next rotation crop productivity will also increasingly ugly , and heavy equipment to log in again ... and continuously until the compacted soil with high levels .... Ultimately, the company closed its land because gold is not there anymore .
Management of soil ( soil ) in HTI is actually very simple , and sometimes do not realize the impact . With delicious sometimes rapidly or we open a forest area ( either harvested plantations or secondary forests that he had broken ) , but not as soon as possible replanting . Once the forest is opened , then the micro- ecosystem is changing drastically . With direct sunlight hitting the surface of the soil , increase soil temperature , stimulating the growth of weed seeds , evaporative nutrient elements formed in the gas . Direct rainwater hits the ground , directly on the soil , water flows quickly , and the potential loss of nutrients , organic matter and " treasure " on the higher ground . To that end , should , after a forest is opened ( cut ) immediately do the planting , weed control done immediately , so that the land back quickly covered , so that more nutrients utilized by plants , so that slowed the flow of rain water both surface runoff and flow into the ground ( infiltration ) .
This problem is still not entirely , micro- forest ecosystem change opened ( either by harvest or land preparation ) , automatically changing patterns of organisms living in the top soil layer . Changes in temperature , light , water , will automatically affect the working patterns of decomposers in the soil surface . The rate of decomposition will be accelerated , but if allowed to linger , the cycle decomposition of organic matter into nutrients will be halted due to the organic material discharged , either because the rate of decomposition by organisms as well as the open nature .
Silviculture activities are " not " hostile to the ground as above , in the end will make the land waste away , and we are prepared to receive " punishment " of nature , the land will be even thinner .......... The only remaining area in the form Acres ........... but it does not exist ..... or if we did we would harvest ACRES ? I fikir not , we should harvest or harvest WOOD MONEY sustainable and increased from one rotation to the next rotation ........
Trivial , such as the timing of planting after harvest , heavy equipment traffic control , weed control , an aspect that should not just theory or training materials ......... been implemented with a simple but practice in the field ......... The land may still be GOLD .